no plagiarize, spell check, and check your grammar. Please use the reference below Ask at least one question in response to an original peer post that you would like the author to explore further. Design – This research article used a phenomenological approach as the researchers were interested in the perspective of adolescents with learning disabilities. The researchers wanted to identify how the adolescents felt about their experiences from their own frame of reference (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013). The authors have experience in research from the participants’ perspectives. Purpose Research from the adolescents’ point of view is critical because they are often unhappy with their experience in the school setting, and often feel that their peers cannot relate to them or understand their experiences and challenges. The authors state that this research is important “…from a social justice standpoint” (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013, p. 5). By speaking directly with the students, it is the goal of researchers to get an in-depth view of about everyday life of adolescents with learning disabilities. Focus The focus of the research was to gather information from the viewpoint of the adolescents who live in a unique culture separate from their peers without learning disabilities. Phenomenological studies typically have are designed to look at typical life experiences and perceptions of the participants. Method of Data Collection Potential recruits were told of about the study through an announcement through the Parent Education Network in the San Francisco Bay Area. The recruitment of participants was done through convenience sampling of identified potential recruits. After identifying adolescents, five were randomly selected for the research project. In-depth oral individual interviews were done for each of the research participants. All interviews were recorded for later transcription by a service. Method of Data Analysis The transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). IPA is useful for enabling researchers to better understand the emotional experiences of the participants. For this research study, three raters were used to code the transcript data. The use of multiple raters is designed to “…reduce individual research bias and increase the overall validity of the results…” (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013, p. 7). The reason for IPA use is to identify emergent themes from the experiences of the adolescents with learning disabilities, which for this study were 1) social support; 2) school experience; 3) understanding of LD/ADHD; and 4) self-advocacy (Rosetti & Henderson, 2013). References Ebrahimpour, F., Esmaeili, M., & Varaei, S. (2018). Photovoice: Method of data collection in qualitative research. Nursing Practice Today, 5(1), 216–218. Retrieved from…. Rosetti, C. W. & Henderson, S. J. (2013). Lived Experiences of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities. The Qualitative Report, 18(24), 1-17. Retrieved from
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Nursing Practice Today
Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218.
Photovoice: Method of data collection in qualitative research
Fatemeh Ebrahimpour1, Maryam Esmaeili2,3*, Shokoh Varaei4
Department of Pediatric Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,
Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,
Tehran, Iran
Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,
Tehran, Iran
In qualitative studies, researchers seek to
discover meanings of human data by
adoption of naturalistic approaches; hence,
data collection methods are particularly
important (1). Photovoice is an innovative
data collection method which can provide
deep and rich information for researchers.
Photovoice is a term consisting of two words,
photo and voice. It was first introduced as a
data collection method for community-based
participatory research (CBPR) by Wang and
Burris in 1997 (2). According to these
researchers, Photovoice is a process in which
participants are able to record several issues
in their society by cameras and they can play
roles as potential facilitators to make a
difference in their society. In this process,
participants, who are volunteers in their
society, have effective participation in sharing
their experience and knowledge with
researchers and policymakers. In other words,
the Photovoice means expressing their life
experience through photography (3).
photovoice has three main goals: 1) to enable
people to record and reflect their community’s
strengths and concerns, 2) to promote critical
dialogue and knowledge about important
issues through large and small group
discussion of photographs, and 3) to reach
policymakers (3). The main nature of
Photovoice is considered as a way to
empower individuals to identify individual
and social health needs and make changes to
improve society where people live (5).
However, since people use their cameras to
take photos of their daily facts and focus on
issues with the highest importance in this
process (6), this process is taken into account
by researchers of qualitative studies as a data
collection method for a deeper understanding
of phenomena. Photovoice is applicable in
every age group and any context and status of
health and disease (2,7). This technique can
be used in phenomenological studies,
Grounded Theory, Ethnography, and
Participatory Action Research (PAR) (2,8,9).
In Photovoice method, researchers initially
determine target issues or questions, and then
select participants who are related to target
issue, and voluntarily include them in the
research. In the next step, researchers explain
them the research objectives and how to use
the camera and techniques of photography,
observing safety issues and ethics. After
taking photos by participants, each photo is
discussed and analyzed through interviews or
by focused groups. Therefore, researchers ask
people 5 questions about reasons for selection
of photos and also their feelings and emotion
by SHOWeD method: 1. what do you see in
this picture? 2. What is happening in this
picture? 3. What connection does it have with
our life? 4. Why is this situation created? 5.
What can we do for it? After this stage,
researchers analyze the content and extract
semantic units and codes and themes based
on the interviews. Results are then presented
for policy makers or other stakeholders in
participatory or community-based case
studies with the aim to make changes in
Please cite this article in press as: Ebrahimpour F, Esmaeili M, Varaei Sh. Photovoice: Method of data collection in qualitative research.
Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218
Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218.
target issue; and photos are published in
galleries, websites, magazines and papers if
necessary (2,10, 11). Photovoice is a method
which emphasizes on participants’ direct
participation as a co-researcher in the study.
Participants take desired photos, and then
themes are identified in a collaborative
process with researchers. In other words,
reflection, thoughts and feelings which
describe a photo, are written for it, and then
participants discuss their experience in a
group and extract common themes through
photos and writing reflections (8). Photovoice
method has a particular conformity with
philosophy and methodology of structuralism
or development and construction of meaning
through individual experience. In other
words, photos display what participants
understand, are interested in or worried about.
Data of similar photos of analysis stage of
qualitative data is discovered through
participants’ collaboration by data encoding,
and then the formation and interpretation of
themes appear. Ethical principles should be
established in performing the Photovoice. 1)
The individual property and privacy are
shown in photos, and thus photos should be
protected in this regard. 2) Photos may show
images of an illegal relationship or other
harmful items, and thus the individual safety
should be provided. 3) Selection of photos
should be based on participants’ choice and
published by their consent. 4) Photos, which
are interesting for researchers and not based
on the participants’ real experience, may be
taken. 5) Participants transfer ownership of
photos by signing the consent form. 6)
Participants have the right to choose (2). In
the health care system, qualitative studies
aim to conduct deep assessment of complex
phenomena which nurses are faced. It is very
important to reach perceptions, live
experience and see the world from
participants’ perspective. In the recent two
decades, Photovoice is utilized in qualitative
studies on the health especially in nursing
research as a way to explore individual
experience of disease or other phenomena
(12). Photovoice is a valuable method which
helps qualitative researchers as a third eye to
observe hidden parts of individual
experience, desires, history, culture, problems
and needs. Therefore, use of multiple sources
in data collection can help to increase data
richness in qualitative studies. Therefore,
researchers are suggested using Photovoice
method based on the research questions in
addition to interview as the most common
method of qualitative data collection.
Polit D, Beck C. Nursing Research:
Generating and Assessing Evidence for
Nursing Practice. 10th. 2017. Wolters
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Teti M, Pichon L, Kabel A, Farnan
R, Binson D. Taking pictures to take control:
Photovoice as a tool to facilitate
empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic
minority women with HIV. J Assoc Nurses
AIDS Care. 2013, 24(6):539-5.
Werremeyer A, Skoy E, Aalgaard
Kelly G. Use of Photovoice to Understand
the Experience of Taking Psychotropic
Medications. Qualitative Health Research.
2017, 27 (18).
Jason LA, Glenwick DS. Handbook of
Methodological Approaches to Communitybased Research. Oxford university press.
2016. New York.
Faucher MA, Garner SL. A method
comparison of photovoice and content
analysis: research examining challenges and
supports of family caregivers. Applied
Nursing Research. 2015, 28, 262–267.
Martin N, Garcia AC, Leipert B.
Photovoice and its potential use in nutrition
and. dietetic research. 2010, 71(2): 93-97.
Hergenrather KC, Rhodes SD, Cowan
CA, Bardhoshi G, Pula S. Photovoice as
Community-Based Participatory Research: A
Nurs Pract Today. 2018; 5(1):216-218.
Qualitative Review. American journal of
health behavior. 2009;33(6):686-698.
RA, Boutain
DM, Rosemberg MS. Advancing Nursing
Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning
Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and
Critical Theory Methodologies. ANS Adv
Nurs Sci. 2017, 40(1): 1-15.
Sanon MA, Robin A. Evans-Agnew
RA, Boutain DM. An exploration of social
justice intent in photovoice research studies
from2008 to 2013. Nursing Inquiry 2014;
21(3): 212–226.
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