Master of DISASTER MANAGEMENT.The course is Public Health Implications of Disasters-Response to two of my classmates.-Instructions:-Look at the two of my classmates’ posts. I need you to respond to each of them in a full-page (3-4 paragraphs).-All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with at least one source support. Also, you can add a little bit new relevant to the topic. In the attachment, you will find my classmates’ posts.(ACADEMIC WRITING) One Page (3 or 4) paragraphs for each of them.1- Use APA Style format 6th edition. Including in-text citation.2- Use Grammarly program to change all the mistakes that give you because my university uses and depends on it3- Use simple academic words as a second language.4- Avoid the passive voice absolutely.
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Response 1 : WA
The 2009 flu pandemic in the U.S. had an ambiguous effect, magnitude, and duration on
the country’s public health. A year later, many studies showed that several agencies and the
federal and state governments cooperated to assess levels of preparedness and response
during the disaster. According to Fineberg, WHO played a vital role in disease surveillance
as it identified, established, and classified the virus expeditiously. The author reports that
this process allowed the agency to keep close working relationships with other
organizations such as the Center for Disease Control and Protection to monitor the effect of
the public health disaster and suggest measures that aimed at mitigating risks and
decreasing the spread of the virus. Although Fineberg sees that WHO faced some obstacles,
including structural weaknesses, he notes that it managed to deliver guidance that
contributed to the control of HIN1virus. Hence, the post-disaster assessment of the flu
2009 reveals dedicated efforts by public health organizations to ensure a successful
Even though the post-disaster period was crucial, H1N1 endemic assessment exposed
the nation’s shortcomings regarding its pandemic preparedness. The most notable failings
included the lack of good communication, problems in health experts’ skills, and access to
critical medicines (Fisher et al. 876). Nevertheless, in the face of these obstacles,
Landesman notes that public health players should invest in surveillance tools to improve
their disaster preparedness. Focusing on these strategies will significantly decrease the
number of deaths, hospitalization, and re-admissions during and after the occurrence of
public health disasters. This is valuable, in particular, because no two-virus outbreaks take
place the same way. Thus, government and health groups should not react to them based
only on experiences.
Fineberg, Harvey V. “Pandemic Preparedness and Response — Lessons from the H1N1
Influenza of 2009.” The New England Journal of Medicine, 2014, pp. 1335-1342.
Fisher, Dale et al. “Pandemic Response Lessons from Influenza H1N1 2009 in
Asia.” Respirology, 2011, pp. 876-882.
Landesman, Linda. Public Health Management of Disasters – The Practice Guide. American
Public Health Association, 2017.
Response 2 : AALS
Post-Disaster Needs Assessment
The 2017 Hurricane Maria was a devastating category five hurricane that affected Puerto
Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and The Commonwealth of Dominica. The impact of the hurricane
on Dominica was catastrophic, with devastation affecting all aspects of the country, including
housing healthcare and tourism. Infrastructural installations were destroyed, including all radio
and cellular towers resulting in the country losing communication to the rest of the world for
several days (Briones, 2019). The hurricane inflicted damage to 98% of buildings (Inserra et al.,
2018). The hurricane also destroyed roads, private homes, and public buildings, such as schools,
hospitals, and churches. The hurricane was accompanied by flooding and subsequent lack of
access to clean drinking water. The hurricane resulted in the deaths of thirty-four people, with
over sixty thousand people being affected.
After the hurricane, the government of the Commonwealth of Dominica initiated a
request for post-disaster needs and priorities assessment to inform on reconstruction, as well as
establish a starting point from where recovery efforts can be measured. The main goals of the
undertaking were to quantify damages inflicted by the hurricane, especially physical damages
and socioeconomic aspects, to evaluate the impact of the disaster on the macroeconomic and
human development needs of the country, and to identify recovery needs, priorities and costs.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica, with technical assistance from the World
Bank, the United Nations, Caribbean Development Bank, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, and
the European Union, conducted the post-disaster needs and priorities assessments.
At the end of the assessment, it was concluded that Hurricane Maria resulted in total
damages of $931 million and estimated losses of $382 million, amounting to over 226% of the
2016 Gross Domestic Product GDP of the county (Government of the Commonwealth of
Dominica, 2017). It was estimated that for complete recovery to be made, the county would
require $1.4 billion targeting the productive sector (agriculture, tourism, and fisheries), social
sector (housing, healthcare, and education), as well as rebuilding the infrastructure and setting up
of a Disaster Risk Management program.
Briones, F. (2019). The endless hurricane: Documenting life in the shelters, after Maria hit
Dominica. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 28(5), 616-622.
doi:10.1108/DPM-10-2019-395 Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica. (2017,
September 18). Post-disaster needs assessment Hurricane Maria. Retrieved from, D.,
Bogie, J., Katz, D., Furth, S., Burke, M., Tubb, K., … Bucci, S. P. (2018, April 16). After the
storms: Lessons from hurricane response and recovery in 2017. The Heritage Foundation.
Retrieved from

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