Master of DISASTER MANAGEMENT.The course is International and Humanitarian Disaster Management.-Response to two of my classmates.-Instructions:-Look at the two of my classmates’ posts. I need you to respond to each of them in a full-page (3-4 paragraphs).-All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with at least one source support. Also, you can add a little bit new relevant to the topic. In the attachment, you will find my classmates’ posts.(ACADEMIC WRITING) One Page (3 or 4) paragraphs for each of them.1- Use APA Style format 6th edition. Including in-text citation.2- Use Grammarly program to change all the mistakes that give you because my university uses and depends on it3- Use simple academic words as a second language.4- Avoid the passive voice absolutely.
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Response 1 : SA
How an Emergency Manager can ensure equality in assistance and relief distribution
One of the roles of an Emergency Manager is to facilitate the equitable distribution of
relief resources. In many cases, however, victims of disasters are not responded to and assisted
equally. Disasters do not hit everyone in equal measure. Many times, vulnerable groups suffer
more when disasters occur. Effective humanitarian aid, therefore, requires the Emergency
Manager to pay keen attention to the factors that make specific populations vulnerable. Without
this, some communities will be excluded from the response and recovery resources.
The Emergency Manager must have full knowledge of preexisting vulnerable groups.
Vulnerable groups may include children, expectant mothers, senior persons, minority ethnic
groups, impoverished persons, and prisoners. Vulnerable populations are often left out in
government plans, and they are less likely to benefit from disaster response and recovery
(Hoffman, 2008). Vulnerable populations often have preexisting conditions that expose them to
the worst impacts of natural and human-made disasters. For example, older persons may not be
able to run as fast, even if evacuation orders are issued. Children, too, may not even know when
disasters hit. As a result, these populations are the hardest hit. To make sure these populations
get a fair share of emergency support, the Emergency Manager must be aware of their existence,
and he/she must have full knowledge of their locations and vulnerabilities.
Ensuring equal distribution of emergency resources goes beyond the identification of
vulnerable populations. The needs of these groups must be determined within the broader
framework of the aftermaths (Garcia-Ortega21 et al., n.d.). Equitable distribution of relief
resources should bear in mind that these populations are hit heavily. Their post-disaster needs
are, therefore, more than those of the general population. The Emergency Manager must develop
a framework for ensuring the best outcome for the least well off (Hoffman, 2008). Affluent
communities, for instance, may have money saved in banks, and they can afford to buy
themselves food and other basic needs. Impoverished populations, however, may have nothing.
Humanitarian aid must, therefore, determine a framework for delivering assistance to both
communities. While the affluent people may only require emotional support and psychological
help, the impoverished and marginalized populations may need food, medical care, and housing.
The role of the Emergency Manager is to ensure every population gets the help it requires.
Various are available for helping Emergency Managers ensure equitable distribution of
emergency resources. Vulnerability mapping tools, for instance, are very useful in identifying
and documenting preexisting vulnerable populations (Raskar-Phule and Choudhury, 2015).
These tools can help to identify social vulnerabilities based on political, geographic, and
economic factors, and they can help to reduce disparities is emergency distribution. ArcGIS tools
and techniques are excellent examples of mapping tools that can be used in vulnerability
mapping. While vulnerability tools are more useful before disasters strike, inclusion monitoring
tools are handy during disaster relief. Inclusion monitoring tools generate crucial vulnerability
information to responders, thereby allowing them to target aid to areas where it would naturally
not reach. Also, these tools help in the assessment of relief service reception across populations,
and they can alert the Emergency Manager of existing disparities.
In summary, disasters often hit hard on vulnerable populations. One of the significant
roles of an Emergency Manager is to identify susceptible people, and this can be done using
vulnerability mapping tools. Once identified, the Emergency Manager needs to prioritize these
populations, which is done using inclusion monitoring tools. Emergency services should be
distributed in proportion to the suffering experienced, such that those who are hit hard get more
help than the general population.
References
Garcia-Ortega21, I., Kutcher22, S., Abel23, W., Alleyne24, S., Baboolal25, N., & Chehil26, S.
Support for vulnerable groups following a disaster. Mental Health and Psychosocial
Support in Disaster Situations in the Caribbean, 73.
Hoffman, S. (2008). Preparing for disaster: Protecting the most vulnerable in emergencies. UC
Davis L. Rev., 42, 1491.
Raskar-Phule, R., & CHOUDHURY, D. (2015). Vulnerability Mapping for Disaster Assessment
using ArcGIS Tools and techniques for Mumbai City, India. In 15th Esri India User
Conference.
Response 2 : wa
Millions of lives are affected every year by natural disasters and consequently unite
humanity together for a common objective of assisting the victims and supporting them as they
get back on their feet. However, very often, the good intentions of humanity do not translate to
results for the victims. One of the key reasons is corruption. Urgently needing to distribute relief
aid almost always results in dangerously cutting corners with regards to controlling the
expenditure and the accountability and transparency of the help. Injection of tremendously huge
amounts of money and resources to a destabilized nation with its institutions destroyed or
severely damaged creates a gap in the balance of power, which consequently leads to the
increase in corruption opportunities (Maxwell et al., 2012).
As an emergency manager, I ought to acknowledge that the prevention of corruption of
emergency relief and humanitarian aid has become increasingly necessary. As such, I would
build an extensive and comprehensive mitigation strategy that has elements required in the fight
against corruption. I would display strong leadership qualities and be actively committed to the
fight against corruption and ensure that preventative measures against corruption are the
responsibility of all staff members. I would address the risk of fraud, together with the risk of
disaster in the reduction strategies. Analysis of the dangers of corruption should be built into
emergency preparedness. I would conduct an analysis of the political environment and political
economy locally in order to determine who can be selected as a partner or an intermediary
locally in the fight against corruption. I would utilize the effective monitoring and evaluation
strategy to review the anti-corruption policies and have the weaknesses of that analysis dealt with
before any disaster hits. I would also train the staff members in the issues concerning integrity
while also actively encouraging the stakeholders to openly talk about and discuss the risks of
corruption and how to mitigate them while ensuring the submission of a report on any suspected
cases of corruption. Sanctions for corruption would be clearly defined and outlined, and the
consequences laid out for the individuals suspected of corruption. As an emergency manager, I
would offer incentives for the management and the members of the staff who actively combat
corruption (Ahrens, & Rudolph, 2006). I would also encourage the whistleblower mentality and
offer rewards to those who report corruption cases.
Victims of natural disasters lose so much, their lives, their homes, their families, and it is
not morally acceptable to deny these individuals their fundamental human rights or take more
from them. Huguette Labelle, the chair of Transparency International, said that it is inexcusable
to abuse emergency relief aid (Calossi, Sberna, & Vannucci, 2012). Humanitarian assistance is
indispensable, and it helps to bring food, shelter and other essential services like medical aid to
millions of people caught in the middle of the worst of circumstances through war, famine,
floods, earthquakes and other natural disasters (Calossi, Sberna, & Vannucci, 2012). This
assistance is the lifeline they need to overcome the tough times, so detection and prevention of
corruption in the relief processes will aid in ensuring that these vital funds reach people who
desperately need them for their survival.
References
Ahrens, J., & Rudolph, P. M. (2006). The importance of governance in risk reduction and
disaster management. Journal of contingencies and crisis management, 14(4), 207220.
Calossi, E., Sberna, S., & Vannucci, A. (2012). Disasters and corruption, corruption as
disaster. In International Disaster Response Law (pp. 651-683). TMC Asser Press,
The Hague, the Netherlands.
Maxwell, D., Bailey, S., Harvey, P., Walker, P., Sharbatke‐Church, C., & Savage, K.
(2012). Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and
challenges. Disasters, 36(1), 140-160.

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