InstructionsFor the Employee Engagement article review, students are expected to fully read the article provided by the instructor. Students will find the article relates to the course content and concepts in the selected modules. Chapters 11 and 12 in the course iBook also provides students a good base of information to work from when considering the information presented in the article.To successfully complete the Article Review, students will submit a critical analysis of the theory presented in the article. A critical analysis includes the fundamentals of the theory and the foundation upon which the author added to the subject. Students may choose to include additional articles or references to support materials presented in the review.A successful Article Review also includes a critique of the information as it relates to concepts presented in our course. Students are encouraged to apply the content in the article to concepts presented in the course. A successful Article Review will be professionally written and formatted in APA style guidelines. Students are expected to include citations and references when and where appropriate. Thesubmission should be at least two pages of written content and no more than three pages.
article_on_employee_engagement_motivation___for_article_review_bus270i.pdf
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Engagement in the workplace
Identifying its key drivers
Dimensions of employee engagement
Positive behaviors among employees can significantly enhance performance in any
organization. Work engagement is a prime example. Engaged employees are usually
characterized by their positive frame of mind and enthusiasm.
Definitions of work engagement vary but by and large incorporate three dimensions labeled
as:
1. Vigor: Mental resilience and high energy levels during work reflect this dimension.
2. Dedication: Which refers to strong involvement in work together with experiencing
feelings of significance, eagerness and being challenged.
3. Absorption: The key aspects here are total concentration and engrossment in work to
the extent where it becomes difficult to disengage from it.
In addition, engaged individuals rate high in self-efficacy. Being positive at work helps them
perceive a degree of control over their environment. They also possess the confidence to
recognize and validate their own efforts. Working is regarded as a fun activity and their
constructive attitude, passion and demeanor often has a positive impact on the morale and
motivation of those around them.
All the evidence indicates that work engagement possesses the capacity to significantly
influence organizational performance and enhance its well-being. It is therefore critical to
identify key drivers of the concept.
Job resources
How people perform in the workplace is at least partly determined by resources at their
disposal. That much is obvious. Where engagement is concerned, various job resources
can have an important influence. These include:

social support from colleagues and superiors;

feedback on performance;

range of skills;

independence; and

scope to learn.
These resources are linked to physical, organizational or social elements of work. Helping
to achieve work-related aims, reduce demands and stresses associated with the job and
facilitate employee growth and development are recognized benefits. Their potential to
PAGE 24 DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING IN ORGANIZATIONS
VOL. 29 NO. 3 2015, pp. 24-26, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 1477-7282
DOI 10.1108/DLO-03-2015-0018
positively affect both personal aspects and those more directly connected with the
workplace goals illustrates the value of job resources. They essentially serve as both
intrinsic and extrinsic motivators.
Research evidence from different types of workplace environments reveals close
associations between various job resources and the three work engagement dimensions.
Job control, managerial support, coaching, feedback and recognition and rewards were
among resources identified. Work-life balance and an innovative climate also serve to
predict engagement.
Perhaps even more significant is the indication that engagement levels become higher
when firms increase certain job resources. The impact seems to be greatest if this
concerns provision of social support, autonomy, performance feedback and
development opportunities.
The motivational qualities of resources become even more evident in times where demands
of the job are high. Heavy workloads and emotional pressures spring readily to mind in this
respect; take education, for example. Schools are often cited as stressful environments in
which to work. In addition to meeting learning targets, it is unfortunately common for
teachers to have the unwelcome distraction of unruly pupils to deal with. But studies
conducted in Finnish schools show that resource availability can help to reduce the
negative impact of such misconduct on engagement. Support, appreciation and workplace
climate are especially important in this context.
Personal resources
As well as job resources, work engagement is influenced by the presence and level of
personal resources. High levels of such resources are linked to motivation, goal setting
and satisfaction at work and in life in general. This is due to the depth of positive
self-regard that emerges when personal resources are abundant. Engaged employees
have been found to rate highly in the personal resources self-efficacy, optimism and
self-esteem as relating to their organization. Having sufficient resilience to cope with an
evolving workplace environment is another personal resource closely linked with
engagement.
The positive influence that engagement can have on output should not be underestimated.
Engaged employees typically:

perform better in their roles than those identified as non-engaged;

are willing and able to undertake tasks external to their main responsibilities;

find more creative solutions to problems; and

are able to inspire their colleagues.
Superior performance by engaged individuals is attributed to:

Positive emotions like joy, contentment and interest: Such emotions prompt greater
intensity of thought and creative urges along with interest in exploration and seeking
new experiences. Those who are satisfied at work are more confident, inclined to
identify opportunities and help others.
All the evidence indicates that work engagement possesses
the capacity to significantly influence organizational
performance and enhance its well-being.
VOL. 29 NO. 3 2015
DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING IN ORGANIZATIONS
PAGE 25
The motivational qualities of resources become even more
evident in times where demands of the job are high.

Good health: Engaged individuals feel healthier both physically and mentally. They
suffer fewer emotionally related health problems than non-engaged workers and are
thus able to perform better.

Ability to mobilize resources: The positivity of engaged employees helps to further
augment psychological resources and strengthen their mental health. Both personal
resources and job resources increase as a consequence of engagement, thus
indicating the existence of a self-perpetuating cycle of positivity. Mobilization of these
resources serves to stimulate future engagement.

Crossover of engagement: This refers to the transfer of experiences between people.
In this instance, the influence of engaged individuals over fellow workers might
enhance team performance. Engagement effectively becomes contagious among
those working closely together. The optimism and proactive nature of engaged team
members helps nurture a positive atmosphere throughout the team. Influence is
particularly strong when group leaders are engaged.
Work engagement is a powerful indicator of the well-being of both employees and the firm.
It is therefore critical that human resource functions are aware of engagement levels and
the impact of its drivers. Findings should then be used to ascertain where appropriate
actions need to be carried out to improve engagement scores.
Comment
Keywords:
Employee attitudes,
Organizational behavior,
Workplace engagement
The review is based on: “Towards a model of work engagement” by Bakker and Demerouti
(2008). Employee engagement is explored in an article which is both comprehensive and
interesting. Bakker and Demerouti note key drivers of engagement and how they relate to
its three main dimensions. A profile of a typical engaged employee can be inferred from this
work, and their value to an organization is pointed out.
Reference
Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E. (2008), “Towards a model of work engagement”, Career Development
International, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 209-223.
For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website:
www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm
Or contact us for further details: permissions@emeraldinsight.com
PAGE 26 DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING IN ORGANIZATIONS
VOL. 29 NO. 3 2015
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without
permission.

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