Medical Terminology class: Watch the video below from the American Medical Association. Share your observations. What lessons can we learn from this video that can help us in our future careers? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BgTuD7l7LG8&feature=emb_logo Math class: Make 4 separate post. Our final discussion is a reflection: As each generation is responsible for leaving a contribution for the next generation, in a two paragraph response, please respond to the following: What would you like an incoming DMS student to know before taking this math class?What was your favorite discussion this term? What is one thing that I can improve on as your professor? What is one thing you are taking with you from this class? This is my favorite discussion in this term. Here is my answer, you just need summary it: In my first 100 years, I would invest in myself and do whatever I like. It is this first 100 years that I will identify my potential and builds it. For instance, I will build my career and establish myself. Again, I will start dating because love, affection, and companion are essential, too, in my later years. In my second phase of life (100-200 years), I will have made a foundation. I would be busy growing my investments and managing them properly as I continue to save. I would buy a house, build some apartments, and invest too much on my health. I will then invest and spend much time with my family and assisting my children in growing themselves. This is because this is the time that I have time, energy, and resources to ensure that I give my goals fuel to propel them. In my last phase (200-300 years), I will have accomplished almost everything in my life. At this point, I will spend much time with my spouse, children, and grandchildren. I will do what I used to like in my 200 years and visit exciting places. Again, I will be helping people to realize themselves, especially the vulnerable. Most importantly, I will be keen on my health and diet to live comfortably and die a comfortable death. Make 4 separate post. 1. What was your favorite part of the class? (I will upload this class some chapter ppt, and you choose favorite part) 2. Least favorite part? (I will upload this class some chapter ppt, and you choose least part) 3. Did you discover any new study techniques? 4. How will you become even more efficient as the courses get harder? Answer 1,2,3 total 2 pages.
discussion_.docx
__dms_ch._1__5____6_tissues_and_skin.pptx
dms_ch._7___8_am.pdf
dms_ch._14__blood_.pptx
dms_ch._12_sensory_systems.pdf
Unformatted Attachment Preview
Medical Terminology class:
Watch the video below from the American Medical Association. Share your
observations. What lessons can we learn from this video that can help us in our future
careers?

Math class:
Make 4 separate post.
Our final discussion is a reflection: As each generation is responsible for leaving a
contribution for the next generation, in a two paragraph response, please respond to
the following:


What would you like an incoming DMS student to know before taking this
math class?
What was your favorite discussion this term?
This is my favorite discussion in this term. Here is my answer, you just need
summary it:
In my first 100 years, I would invest in myself and do whatever I like. It is this first 100 years
that I will identify my potential and builds it. For instance, I will build my career and
establish myself. Again, I will start dating because love, affection, and companion are
essential, too, in my later years.
In my second phase of life (100-200 years), I will have made a foundation. I would be busy
growing my investments and managing them properly as I continue to save. I would buy a
house, build some apartments, and invest too much on my health. I will then invest and
spend much time with my family and assisting my children in growing themselves. This is
because this is the time that I have time, energy, and resources to ensure that I give my
goals fuel to propel them.
In my last phase (200-300 years), I will have accomplished almost everything in my life. At
this point, I will spend much time with my spouse, children, and grandchildren. I will do
what I used to like in my 200 years and visit exciting places. Again, I will be helping people
to realize themselves, especially the vulnerable. Most importantly, I will be keen on my
health and diet to live comfortably and die a comfortable death.


What is one thing that I can improve on as your professor?
What is one thing you are taking with you from this class?
BIO 100 question, just one page. Answer it.
Make 4 separate post.
1. What was your favorite part of the class? (I will upload this class some chapter ppt, and
you choose favorite part)
2. Least favorite part? (I will upload this class some chapter ppt, and you choose least part)
3. Did you discover any new study techniques?
4. How will you become even more efficient as the courses get harder?
Answer 1,2,3 total 2 pages.
Hi! I’m Aly and I will be
subbing for Leon today
Riddle of the day: What is black when you buy it, red
when you use it and gray when you throw it away?
Exam I this week!
Ch. 1-8 and 24
90 questions; 1:55 min time limit
10 questions/chapter
I Like To Move it, Move it
Bones, Joints, and Movement
Divisions of the Skeleton
Divisions of the Skeleton
Flat bones of the skull, clavicles, sternum, and some facial bones
Start with undifferentiated connective tissue (Mesenchyme)
Differentiate into Osteoblasts (Bone forming cells)
Start with hyaline cartilage, then it degenerates
Connective tissue cells invade and differentiate into Osteoblasts
Epiphyseal plate remains for further growth
Feedback Loops
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
A.
B.
C.
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
A.
B.
C.
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
In you study groups, determine
what would happen if there were:
High Blood Calcium Levels
Loss-of-function Mutations
Gain-of-function Mutations
5 min Break
I like to Move it, Move it
Joints and Movement
Types of Joints
Types of Joints
Types of Joints
Types of Joints
Hip bone
Metacarpal
Head of femur
in acetabulum
Femur
Phalanx
(a) Ball-and-socket joint (multiaxial
movement)
(b) Condylar joint (biaxial
movement)
Humerus
Radius
Carpals
(c) Plane joint (nonaxial
movement)
Dens
Transverse
ligament
Ulna
(d) Hinge joint (uniaxial
movement)
First
metacarpal
Atlas
Trapezium
Axis
(e) Pivot joint (uniaxial
movement)
(f) Saddle joint (biaxial
movement)
Types of Joints



What do kneecaps (Patellas) do?













Other types of
movement
Dorsiflexion
Circumduction
Plantar flexion
Medial
rotation
Pronation
Lateral
rotation
Other types of
movement
Inversion
Eversion
Elevation
Protraction
Retraction
Depression
Blood
Ch. 14
Welcome Back PTA Cohort!
• Discussion forum: 4 posts (>10 words). You can respond to the prompt
or to each other.
• Quizzes: 50% of the questions will be from knowledge checks, 50% will
be modified questions from live session.
• Midterm/ Final: 50% knowledge checks, 50% live session questions.
• To Do Well:
• Do as many KC’s as possible.
• Attempt questions in live session, make sure you understand how to do each one.
• Cash in on free points (KC’s, exercises, discussion forum posts).
Centrifuged Blood
In a centrifuged blood sample:
• 55% is plasma.
• 45% is RBCs.
• WBCs and platelets are <1%. Percentage of RBCs is called the: • Hematocrit (HCT) or • Packed cell volume (PCV) Blood Composition Erythrocytes can emerge from which of the following precursor cells? A. Reticulocyte B. Myeloid stem cell C. Hematopoietic stem cell D.2 are correct. E. All are correct. Erythrocytes can emerge from which of the following precursor cells? A. Reticulocyte B. Myeloid stem cell C. Hematopoietic stem cell D.2 are correct. E. All are correct. Lymphoid stem cells can differentiate into … A. T lymphocyte B. B lymphocyte C. Macrophage D.2 are correct. E. All are correct. Lymphoid stem cells can differentiate into … A. T lymphocyte B. B lymphocyte C. Macrophage D.2 are correct. E. All are correct. Erythropoiesis: RBC formation • Occurs in red bone marrow. • Low blood O2 causes kidneys and liver to release E P O (erythropoietin), which converts reticulocytes to erythrocytes. • A negative feedback mechanism. • Hemocytoblast → erythroblast → reticulocytes → erythrocytes Anemia is when there is a decline in the number of red blood cells in the body. Therefore, the release of erythropoietin will _____. A. Increase B. Decrease C. Stay the same Anemia is a condition where the O2carrying capacity of the blood is reduced due to deficient RBCs. Therefore, the release of erythropoietin will _____. A. Increase B. Decrease C. Stay the same If the number of erythropoietin receptors on reticulocytes increased, you would expect the hematocrit to… A. Increase B. Decrease C. Stay the same If the number of erythropoietin receptors on reticulocytes increased, you would expect the hematocrit to… A. Increase B. Decrease C. Stay the same Pernicious anemia occurs when the body is unable to absorb vitamin B12. Which of the following will occur? A. High hematocrit B. Fewer but bigger cells. C. Increased O2-carrying capacity of blood. D. 2 are correct. E. All are correct. Substance Source Function Vitamin B12 (requires intrinsic factor for absorption via small intestine) Absorbed from small intestine DNA synthesis Iron Absorbed from small intestine; conserved during red blood cell destruction and made available for reuse Hemoglobin synthesis Folic acid Absorbed from small intestine DNA synthesis Pernicious anemia occurs when the body is unable to absorb vitamin B12. Which of the following will occur? A. High hematocrit B. Fewer but bigger cells. C. Increased O2-carrying capacity of blood. D. 2 are correct. E. All are correct. Substance Source Function Vitamin B12 (requires intrinsic factor for absorption via small intestine) Absorbed from small intestine DNA synthesis Iron Absorbed from small intestine; conserved during red blood cell destruction and made available for reuse Hemoglobin synthesis Folic acid Absorbed from small intestine DNA synthesis The brown color of fecal matter is due to the excretion of bilirubin. A patient presents with pale-colored fecal matter. Which is most likely? A. There is an incomplete breakdown of globin by the liver. B. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are not being absorbed by the small intestine. C. We can expect to find high concentrations of heme and bilirubin in the liver. D. None of these statements are congruent with the patient’s symptoms. The brown color of fecal matter is due to the excretion of bilirubin. A patient presents with pale-colored fecal matter. Which is most likely? A. There is an incomplete breakdown of globin by the liver. B. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are not being absorbed by the small intestine. C. We can expect to find high concentrations of heme and bilirubin in the liver. D. None of these statements are congruent with the patient’s symptoms. White blood cells (Leukocytes, WBCs): • Protect against disease. • WBCs are produced in red bone marrow, under control of hormones: interleukins and colonystimulating factors. There are 5 types of WBCs, in 2 categories: • Granulocytes, which have granular cytoplasm, and short life span: • Neutrophils – most common WBC; first at infection site. • Eosinophils – found at allergic reactions. • Basophils – release histamine (swelling) and heparin (anti-blood clotting). • Agranulocytes, which do not have noticeable granules: • Lymphocytes – B or T lymphocytes. • Monocytes – become macrophages. Inflammatory Response Which of the following would lead to a more rapid and robust antibacterial response? A. Decreased secretions of interleukin. B. Increased capillary permeability. C. Increased histamine release from basophils. D. 2 are correct. E. All are correct. Which of the following would lead to a more rapid and robust antibacterial response? A. Decreased secretions of interleukin. B. Increased capillary permeability. C. Increased histamine release from basophils. D. 2 are correct. E. All are correct. Plasma • • • • • Clear, straw-colored. Liquid portion of blood. 55% of blood volume. 92% water. Contains organic and inorganic chemicals. • Transports nutrients, gases, hormones, and vitamins. • Helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and maintain pH. Protein Percentag e of Total Origin Function Albumins 60% Liver Help maintain colloid osmotic pressure Globulins 36% Blank Blank Alpha globulins Blank Liver Transport lipids and fatsoluble vitamins Beta globulins Blank Liver Transport lipids and fatsoluble vitamins Lymphatic tissues Constitute the antibodies of immunity Liver Plays a key role in blood coagulation Gamma globulins Blank Fibrinogen 4% A decrease in albumin concentrations will have what effect on the colloid osmotic pressure? A. Increase B. Decrease C. Not change A decrease in albumin concentrations will have what effect on the colloid osmotic pressure? A. Increase B. Decrease C. Not change An increase in blood albumin concentrations will likely… A. Increase colloid osmotic pressure at the arterial end. B. Decrease filtration at the arterial end. C. Increased reabsorption at the venous end. D. 2 are correct. E. All are correct. An increase in blood albumin concentrations will likely… A. Increase colloid osmotic pressure at the arterial end. B. Decrease filtration at the arterial end. C. Increased reabsorption at the venous end. D. 2 are correct. E. All are correct. Hemostatic Mechanisms Clotting factors: chemicals used in coagulation. Vitamin K: needed for clotting factors to function. Both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways convert fibrinogen to fibrin (active protein). Blood Coagulation: Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Pathways Steps Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism Trigger Damage to vessel or tissue Blood contacts foreign surface Initiation Tissue thromboplastin Hageman factor Series of reactions involving several clotting factors and calcium ions (Ca+2) lead to the production of: Prothrombin activator Prothrombin activator Prothrombin activator and calcium ions cause the conversion of: Prothrombin to thrombin Prothrombin to thrombin Thrombin causes fragmentation, then joining of: Fibrinogen to fibrin Fibrinogen to fibrin Which clotting factors are shared by both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways? A. B. C. D. E. Thrombin Fibrin Tissue Thromboplastin (Factor III) 2 are correct. All are correct. Which clotting factors are shared by both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways? A. B. C. D. E. Thrombin Fibrin Tissue Thromboplastin (Factor III) 2 are correct. All are correct. _____ is found in damaged tissue and is a clotting factor of the _____ clotting mechanism. A. B. C. D. Tissue thromboplastin; extrinsic Hageman factor; intrinsic Tissue thromboplastin; intrinsic Hageman factor; extrinsic _____ is found in damaged tissue and is a clotting factor of the _____ clotting mechanism. A. B. C. D. Tissue thromboplastin; extrinsic Hageman factor; intrinsic Tissue thromboplastin; intrinsic Hageman factor; extrinsic Blood comes into contact with smooth muscle and connective tissue (there is no tissue damage). Levels of _____ are elevated in the blood and the _____ clotting mechanism is engaged. A. B. C. D. Tissue thromboplastin; extrinsic Hageman factor; intrinsic Tissue thromboplastin; intrinsic Hageman factor; extrinsic Blood comes into contact with smooth muscle and connective tissue (there is no tissue damage). Levels of _____ are elevated in the blood and the _____ clotting mechanism is engaged. A. B. C. D. Tissue thromboplastin; extrinsic Hageman factor; intrinsic Tissue thromboplastin; intrinsic Hageman factor; extrinsic Inhibition of Blood Clot Formation Why would you want to stop a blood clot from forming? Deep Vein Thrombosis: • Clot formation due to pooling of stagnant blood, mainly in femoral or popliteal veins, or deep veins of pelvis. • Serious complication of DVT is a pulmonary embolism, in which blood clot travels through circulation, and lodges in a pulmonary blood vessel, resulting in loss of function in affected portion of the lung. Antigen: Any molecule that evokes an immune response. If immune system finds a foreign antigen in the body, it produces antibodies against the antigen. Antibodies: Proteins that react against a specific antigen. In an incompatible blood transfusion, donor red blood cells (RBCs) evoke an immune response in the recipient (agglutination), and antibodies in the recipient’s plasma agglutinate the donor RBCs. ABO Blood Group: • Is based on the presence or absence of two major antigens on red blood cell membranes: Antigen A and Antigen B. • Antigens A and B are carbohydrates. Blood Antigens and Antibodies A person with Type B blood has what antibodies? A. B. C. D. Anti-A antibody Anti-B antibody Both anti-A and –B antibodies. Anti-O antibodies. A person with Type B blood has what antibodies? A. B. C. D. Anti-A antibody Anti-B antibody Both anti-A and –B antibodies. Anti-O antibodies. A Type B person can receive blood from which donors? A. B. C. D. E. Type A person Type B person Type O person 2 are correct. All are correct. A Type B person can receive blood from which donors? A. Type A person B. Type B person C. Type O person – neither A nor B antigens. D. 2 are correct. E. All are correct. Rh Blood Group • Rh positive: Presence of antigen D or other Rh antigens on RBC membranes. • Rh negative: Do not have the Rh antigens on RBC membranes. • Anti-Rh antibodies form only in Rh-negative individuals in response to the presence of red blood cells with Rh antigens. • The seriousness of the Rh blood group is evident in a fetus that develops the condition erythroblastosis fetalis or hemolytic disease of the newborn. A person with Type A blood who is Rh-negative can receive blood from which donors? A. B. C. D. E. Type AB, Rh-negative Type O, Rh-positive Type B, Rh-positive Type A, Rh-positive None of the recipients. A person with Type A blood who is Rh-negative can receive blood from which donors? A. B. C. D. E. Type AB, Rh-negative Type O, Rh-positive Type B, Rh-positive Type A, Rh-positive None of the recipients – this person has anti-Rh antibodies. Anyone who is Rh-positive will be incompatible. Sensory Systems Ch. 12 Tips • Use the list of objectives to guide your studying! • Make sure you are able to answer each objective before taking your quiz. • Attempt the “PRACTICE QUIZ” – unlimited attempts, not graded. Introduction to Sensory Function Senses maintain homeostasis by providing info about the external and internal environment. Receptors for our general (somatic) senses are distributed throughout the body in the skin (exteroceptive), organs (visceroceptive), and joints (proprioceptive). Receptors for our special senses are only found in the head (e.g. eyes, ears, nose, mouth). Sensation is when the brain receives sensory info and perception is when the brain interprets it. Projection is when the brain determines where the stimulation originated. 5 Receptors Types 1. Chemoreceptors: are activated by chemicals (smell, taste, [O2] in the blood). 2. Pain (nociceptors): respond to tissue damage. 3. Thermoreceptors: respond to temperature change. 4. Mechanoreceptors: respond to forces that physically deform the receptors (touch, tension, pressure, stretch). 5. Photoreceptors: respond to light. Sensory info flows from the periphery to the brain. Information Flow Smell Taste Sight Hearing Sensory receptors Olfactory receptor cells Taste bud receptor cells Rods and cones in retina Hair cells in cochlea ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Impulse in sensory fibers Olfactory nerve fibers Sensory fibers in various cranial nerves Optic nerve fibers Auditory nerve fibers ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Impulse reaches CNS Cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex Midbrain and cerebral cortex Midbrain and cerebral cortex ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Sensation (new experience, recalled memory) A pleasant smell A sweet taste A small, round, red object A crunching sound ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Perception The smell of an apple The taste of an apple The sight of an apple The sound of biting into an apple Sensory adaptation is when a sensory receptor becomes desensitized following repeated stimulation. Which of the following senses don’t undergo sensory adaptation? A. B. C. D. E. Smell Taste Temperature Pain All senses undergo sensory adaptation. Sensory adaptation is when a sensory receptor becomes desensitized following repeated stimulation. Which of the following senses don’t undergo sensory adaptation? A. B. C. D. E. Smell Taste Temperature Pain – never adapts! All senses undergo sensory adaptation. Touch and Pressure Senses Primary somatic sensory cortex is in the parietal lobe. Senses of Pain Free nerve endings are the receptors that detect pain. They are distributed through skin and internal tissues (but not in the brain). Pain receptors aka nociceptors are stimulated by temperature, pressure, chemoreceptors and don’t adapt when constantly stimulated. Visceral pain: pain receptors are the only visceral (organ) receptors that produce sensations. Visceral pain receptors are activated when tissues are stretched or are deprived of oxygen. Visceral pain can feel like its coming from another part of the body. This is referred pain and it happens because sensory impulses from the visceral organ and areas of the skin synapse on the same neuron in the CNS. Proprioception Stretch receptors are proprioceptors that send info to the CNS regarding the length and tension of muscles. 2 types: 1. Muscle spindles are in the tendons and are stimulated when the skeletal muscles relax (muscles stretch when they’re relaxed) – maintain limb position. 2. Golgi tendon organs are connected directly to the skeletal muscle and respond to increased muscle tension. They maintain posture and prevent tendon tearing. Olfaction KNOW THE OLFACTORY PATHWAY. Secondary sensory neurons = cranial nerve 1. Specific smells comes from the ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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