kindly, in attached answer the questions ( short and Essay ) for Course : ethics part of Human Recourse note :all answers will be preparation for final exam
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Organizational
Ethics
A Practical
Approach,
Second Edition
by
Craig E.
Johnson
Chapter #8
Leadership Ethics
2
Leadership Ethics
 Social learning theory helps explain why and
how organizational leaders exert so much
influence over the ethical behavior of
followers and the organization as a whole.
 When it comes to ethics, organizational
members look to their leaders as role models
and follow their example.
 Moral leaders keep ethics in the forefront of
organizational life.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
3
The Ethical Challenges of Leadership
 Leadership is the exercise of influence in a group
context.
 Leaders face six principal ethical challenges:
power,
privilege,
responsibility,
information management,
consistency,
and loyalty.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
4
The Challenge of Power
 Power is of greater concern to leaders
because:
(a) they generally have more of it, and
(b) power is the tool or currency that leaders
use to exercise influence over the direction of
the group
 Abuse of power appears to be common in
organizations.

Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
5
The Challenge of Privilege
 Power and privilege generally operate in
tandem.
 The more power a leader has, generally the
greater the privileges he or she enjoys.
 The gap between the compensation
packages of top executives and those of
average workers in the United States is wider
than ever.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
6
The Challenge of Responsibility
 If we hope to be considered as responsible
leaders, we must take the following steps:

Admit our duties to followers
Take reasonable steps to prevent crimes and
other follower abuses
Acknowledge and try to correct ethical problems
Take responsibility for the consequences of our
orders and actions
Hold ourselves to the same standards as our
followers
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
7
The Challenge of Information Management
 Leaders generally have access to more
information than do followers.
 Leaders need lots of data to carry out their
tasks. Yet, possessing knowledge raises
some sticky ethical dilemmas.
 Leaders must also determine whether to
reveal that they have important information,
when to release that information, and to
whom.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
8
The Challenge of Consistency
 All too often, leaders act inconsistently, giving
more favorable treatment (extra pay and time
off, special attention, longer deadlines) to
their friends and their favorite subordinates.
 Followers react to leaders in a variety of ways
because of diverse backgrounds, skill levels,
and personalities.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
9
The Challenge of Loyalty
 Leaders have to balance a variety of loyalties,
weighing their commitments to employees,
suppliers, families, investors, their
professions, the larger society, and the
environment.
 To be a model leader, put the needs of the
larger community ahead of selfish interests
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
10
The Shadow Side of Leadership
 Failure to meet the ethical challenges of the
leadership role can lead to a variety of
misbehaviors—abuse of power and privilege,
irresponsibility, deception, invasion of privacy,
injustice, and misplaced and broken loyalties.
 Recognizing the dark or “shadow” side of
leadership can help us become more ethical
leaders.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
11
Bad Leadership
 Seven types of bad leaders:

Incompetent Leaders
Rigid Leaders
Intemperate Leaders
Callous Leaders
Corrupt Leaders
Insular Leaders
Evil Leaders
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
12
Toxic Leadership
 Toxic leaders engage in the destructive
behaviors.
 These behaviors and qualities cause
significant harm to leaders, groups,
organizations, and societies.
 Toxic leaders appear in every segment of
society and in every region of the globe.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
13
Destructive Leadership
 Five types of leadership behaviors:

Constructive leadership behavior
Tyrannical leadership behavior
Derailed leadership behavior
Supportive-disloyal leadership behavior
Laissez-faire leadership behaviors
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
14
Selfish Leadership
 Selfish leaders can be classified as impulsive,
narcissistic, or Machiavellian.

Impulsive, selfish people are more likely to
seek powerful positions and to be identified as
leaders by others.
Like their ancient namesake, modern-day
narcissists are self-absorbed and think highly
of themselves.
Highly Machiavellian individuals are skilled at
manipulating others for their own ends.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
15
Normative Leadership Theories
 Normative leadership theories tell leaders how to
act.
 These theories are designed to help us manage
our ethical duties when we take on leadership
roles and can help us avoid the shadow side of
leadership.
 Each of these theories encourages selfless
behavior, urging leaders to focus on the needs of
followers, raise the moral performance of the
group, address community needs, avoid
manipulative behaviors, and so on.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
16
Transformational Leadership
 Transformational leaders speak to higher-level
needs—the need to belong, to feel good about
oneself, and to reach one’s full potential.
 They spotlight values that are more likely to
mobilize and energize followers, like equality,
liberty, justice, and freedom.
 Transformational leaders engage in the following:

Idealized Influence
Individualized Consideration
Inspirational Motivation
Intellectual Stimulation
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
17
Transformational Leadership
 Individuals can use transformational tactics to
reach immoral ends.
 When it comes to idealized influence, some
leaders appear to be honest and supportive
of their people, but privately they are
unreliable and all too willing to sacrifice their
followers for their own goals.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
18
Servant Leadership
 Current interest in leaders as servants can be
traced back to management expert Robert
Greenleaf.
 Ten characteristics of the servant leader
drawn from Greenleaf ’s writings:

1. Listening
2. Empathy
3. Healing
4. Awareness
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
19
Servant Leadership
 Greenleaf’s characteristics (cont’d)

5. Persuasion
6. Conceptualization
7. Foresight
8. Stewardship
9. Commitment to the Growth of People
10. Building Community
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
20
Servant Leadership
 Common themes of servant leaders:

First, servant leadership is person centered or
altruistic.
Second, servant leadership promotes equity or
justice.
Third, servant leadership rests on ethical
character.
Four, servant leadership incorporates
stewardship.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
21
Authentic Leadership
 Authentic leadership theory (ALT) is an offshoot of
positive psychology and positive organizational
scholarship.
 Self-awareness, balanced processing, internalized
moral perspective, and relational transparency all
play an important role in authentic leadership.
 Authentic leadership has a strong moral
component.
 Critical incidents called trigger events play an
important role in the development of moral
component of authentic leadership.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
22
Postindustrial and Relational Leadership
 Postindustrial leadership highlights the
partnership between leaders and followers.
 Ethics in postindustrial leadership is process
focused.
 Relational leadership is described by how
people with very different but equally valid
worldviews (beliefs, attitudes, values) must
accomplish leadership tasks together in the
postmodern world.
Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach, 2e by Craig E. Johnson © 2012 SAGE Publications Inc.
Chapter 8
Leadership
Ethics
” !,
Short Answer
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What does it mean fbr organizational leaders to act as moral managers?
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Explain what trigger evbnts are and how they promote auihentic leader development.
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: 3. Identify the factors that make up transformational leadership.
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Outline the differences between authentic transfbrmational and pseudo-transformational
leaders.
5.
Name five warning signs that can be used to identify
becoming a toxic leader.
6.
Identify the four key components of authentic leadership.
7.
Name and briet’ly explain the types of bad leadership.
8. Name and explain the types of constructive
if you might
be in danger
of
and destructive organizational leadership
behaviors.
EssaY
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What is the greatest moral challenge facing leaders? Defend your choice.
10.
Why must good leaders be both ethical and effective?
11.
What can be done to curb the selfish tendencies of leaders?,
12.
Evaluate the behavior of an unethical leader using one of the categories of shadow
13.
Must all ethical leaders be authentic? Defend your position.

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As a leader, how can you ethically balance the need to treat each follower
differently whi le acting consistently?
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Can transformational leaders also be unethical? Why or why not?
Determine if a leader is transformational
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leadership.
and
transformational
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using the dimensions of transactional
Compare and contrast transformational leadership and servant leadership theories.

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