Must write a 10-page paper with 10 footnotes The paper will explore an architectural element of your choice (I picked columns). To study the nature of an element, you may compare two treatises, a treatise with an associated project, or a treatise with a contemporary project. It should synoptically present the idea of the paper. A brief (no more than one page) ekphrasis of the frontispiece must be also included. I have already written the paper and submitted the draft, I got it back with a lot of feedback that needs to be fixed. My instructor also recommended books that I will have to scan and attach here. I need someone to fix the paper and follow and guidelines + feedback from the instructor. I also need help with improving my frontispiece (it will be drawn by me) so it matches the final draft. I will attach my original draft document + scans of instructors feedback (he also gave me a couple pages from a book that should be included) + scans of the other booksVitruvius – Ten books on architecture: http://www.chenarch.com/images/arch-texts/0000-Vit…The Four Books of Architecture, Andrea Palladio: https://archive.org/details/architecturePal00Pall/…Roman Builders, Rabun Taylor: (attached)The Dancing Column, Joseph Rykwert: https://transfernow.net/01ck21900xar
original_draft.docx
ekphrasis.docx
instructor_s_feedback.pdf
instructor_attached_this_to_my_paper_along_with_the_feedback.pdf
roman_builders.pdf
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Introduction
The advancements made in the various sectors of the economy have been attributed to
among different factors including the availability of infrastructure. The development of
infrastructural designs has been as a result of improved and developed architectural approaches
to design and creativity. The advancements made in architecture in terms of designs and the
elements involved has rendered the modern day designs of the existing elements to be modified
and structured into state of the art architectural pieces. Ancient architecture has been considered
as the foundation of a growing and developed sector that has encouraged modern day
architectural designs. Ideally, while the structures that have continued to be put up and
redesigned on the basis of the foundations of past architectural innovations and elements, the
understanding of the evolution of architectural elements such as columns brings into focus the
advancements made in architecture. The significance of the columns in architecture is traced to
historical buildings that have also become monumental structures in the contemporary world. In
contrast, the value and significance of the columns may be understood from the comparison of
the relevance and meaning associated with columns in Ancient Greek and Roman architecture
and the modern American Iconic columns.
Types of Columns
The field of architecture is vast and comprises of various factors that have to be aligned
in a manner that ensures that the structures that are put up are secure and fit for occupation. The
history of architecture dates back to the ancient regimes of the Greeks and the Romans and
hence, the approaches and the elements of architecture and footed in the foundation that was laid
by the Greeks and the Romans. Ideally, the structures that were put up in ancient Greece and
Rome stood distinct following the diversity of the elements that were put together. Columns in
particular were the distinguishing factor in the application of the neoclassical styles that were
accompanied by the gothic themes of the structures (Barletta, 2013). The columns stood out
based on the designs that were used as well as the type of stone used to sculptor. The distinction
of the Greek and the Roman columns was based on the reasons as to why they were used. Greek
columns were purposely for holding up the roofing of the buildings erected while the Roman
columns were for décor purposes majorly. However, the designs were further categorized based
on their designs as discussed.
1. Greek Columns
The Greeks are known for their various inventions as well as their articulate expertise in
architecture. Buildings and structures such as theatre arenas, temples and stadia formed a
significant part of the art that the Greeks displayed in their architectural expertise. Greek
architecture in terms of the columns is categorized into five orders (Barletta, 2013). Essentially,
the Greek are attributed with being pioneers of the designs and use of columns. The five orders
include the Doric, Ionic and the Corinthian orders which are originals of the Greek while the
other two orders are the Tuscan and Composite (Barozzi da Vignola, 1999). These orders
differed mainly in terms of design but all were used for purposes of support and holding up the
roofing of the buildings that they built.
The Doric order came to be after the transition of the columns from using wooden pillars
to the use of stone. The Doric column was a thin structure that equally had no base and was
distinct for its square capital. The Ionic column is among the most common used orders. The
column featured a slim and straight column with scroll capitals and a base (Barletta, 2013). The
Corinthian column is one that has been used in majority of the western countries including the
United States. Corinthian columns present similarities with the Ionic columns with the main
difference being the decorative capital of the column that comprises fern leaves and acanthus
(Barozzi da Vignola, 1999). The Corinthian order can be easily spotted in majority of the major
classical buildings in the western countries following its common use and preference to other
orders.
The stability and firm nature of the columns designed by the Greeks have since rendered
them to be the most preferred and used orders in the construction of several majestic buildings
both in the ancient world as well as the neoclassical era of contemporary architecture. While the
Greeks may be deemed as the pioneers of the architecture element of columns the Romans in
their architectural developments also came up with two orders that were primarily modifications
of the Greek orders (Barozzi da Vignola, 1999).
1. Roman Columns
Roman civilization is one that was equally characterized with various innovations and
inventions in the different fields of science, mathematics and even physics. Ideally, the expertise
of the Romans similar to the Greeks was significant in ensuring that the creations and works
associated with them met the perfection required. Roman architecture featured the establishment
of temples and structures that manifested the superiority of the Roman civilization. Ancient
Rome similar to ancient Greece was characterized with buildings and structures that were fitted
with strong and tall standing columns (Barletta, 2013). Unlike the Greeks who used the columns
for purposes of supporting the upper structures of the buildings, the Romans used columns
purely for decoration. The Romans put to use the Greek orders Doric Ionic and Corinthian in
their structures. However, the Tuscan and Composite orders are considered to be creations of the
Romans.
The Tuscan order type of columns was a simplified modification of the Doric order of the
Greeks. Ideally, the Tuscan columns were more plain and simple without any form of
decorations. The Tuscan order of the columns ideally was considered to be the firmest and more
solid in comparison to other orders. Buildings that required less attention and décor such as
military buildings used this form of columns in the Roman Empire. The Composite order is a
combination of the Ionic and Corinthian orders. Practically, the Composite column maintains the
structure of the Ionic column with the exception of its capital taking up the shape and design of
the Corinthian columns. Ideally, the composite column despite it comprising of two different
column designs, it was still considered to be part of the Greek orders until it was considered an
independent order and a creation of the Romans (Barletta, 2013). The Roman orders in this
regard may not necessarily be considered to be new inventions but the modification of the
existing Greek orders.
Neoclassical architecture
The ancient economies and architecture underwent a phase of silence up until the
Renaissance period when the classical styles that were once used in classical architecture were
up in demand once more. The concepts and designs of the classical styles that were common in
ancient Greece and Rome ideally became areas of significant interest and the professionals in
architecture sought to re-use and bring back the different orders in terms of columns and their
use in architectural designs in comparison to ancient Greece and Rome. Ideally, the uses of
columns in this period were for both support and decorative purposes. The adoption of the use of
columns made it possible for majority of the buildings put up in the western countries to have a
touch of the ancient designs but in a manner that the buildings would exude authority and beauty
at the same time.
The Doric order of the Greek columns essentially was the most preferred in the
neoclassic period which was equally associated with the concept of simplicity (Johann, 1856).
As a consequence, majority of the buildings that were erected during the period only put to use
simple designs such as the use of the Doric columns and blank walls as opposed to the ancient
period insistence on the use of décor and other complimentary factors. In the long term, the
neoclassic styles were adopted not only by the western countries but also in Europe.
Contemporary use of Columns
Modern architecture has borrowed much from ancient Greek and Roman procedures and
art as well. The articulate nature of the structures brought up by the Greeks and the décor by the
Romans have been a common attraction that several of the older structures in the United States
have been constructed and designed in the same manner. One of the significant factors is that,
while the entire designs of the ancient Greece have not been adopted, the columns have been a
major influence in majority of the historic buildings more so in the United States of America
(Hutton, 2015). The different types of columns that are used in different structures reveal the
impact that the element has on the manifestation of the beauty of the architecture used.
American buildings and structures such as the American Supreme Court, the US Treasury
building, the Jefferson’s Memorial and the Longworth House Office building have the
characteristic of the Ionic and Corinthian columns. These structures have been designed in a
manner that their appearance is magnified to levels that render them to represent the neoclassic
era as the designs and columns were mostly used in government buildings. Primarily, the use of
the columns was equally for support and décor thus combining the approaches used by both the
Greeks and the Romans (Hutton, 2015). However, majority of the structures have undergone a
series of renovations but maintained the column appearances that have continued to be distinct
features of the building.
The United States Supreme Court building for example does not only have the sixteen
columns on its frontispiece. On the contrary, the interior of the building also comprises of other
columns that have been carefully designed and structured to support the triangular pediment.
Additionally, the columns have been erected within the chambers next to prominent figures as a
form of authority (Oleson, 2009). The American Supreme Court is just one of the major
buildings in the United States capital to manifest Greek architecture and use of columns. Other
government buildings also have been designed in a manner that the columns stand out and are
vividly placed on the entrances such as the US Treasury building in Washington DC. While the
use of the Greek architecture elements have been used with buildings for majority of the
structures in the West, the Roman consideration of décor has also been at the core of the designs.
Columns in the Rose Hill Manor have been viewed as décor to the mansion with their Ionic
capitals and the triangular pediment that they support (Oleson, 2009). The mansion though
modern still displays a rich classical architectural design. This is the same factor with the
Delgado-Correa Manor in Middleton Delaware.
Aside from the columns being used on buildings, the contemporary architectural designs
have evolved to include open air spaces such as the Thomas Jefferson Memorial. The structure
was influenced with the design of the Pantheon of Rome that encompassed of the dome shaped
structure that is held up by solid columns. In total, the Memorial has 54 Ionic columns that stand
firm to hold up the dome structure. The United States Capitol columns are yet another example
of how the Corinthian columns of ancient Greece have been used outside the common approach
of having them in buildings (Oleson, 2009). Ideally, the 22 Corinthian columns are found in the
Arboretum of the national capitol after the intended construction involving a dome to be placed
on top of the columns failed to materialize. The columns hold a distinct feature of the Corinthian
design and have been arranged in a manner that they form part of the various tourist attractions
in the US capital Washington DC.
The contemporary use of the columns in architecture in essence has not moved far from
the original use and presentation of the element in buildings. On the contrary, the use of columns
has been taken up as a means of advancing neoclassic styles of architecture in the modern
setting. Ideally, modern buildings and structures continue to bear their modern appearances with
a touch of neoclassicism. The buildings are mainly found within the capitals of the different
states reflect a history of the development of architecture (Summerson, 1992). The government
buildings, though revamped and renovated still maintain a touch of ancient history in their
appearances. Further, the neoclassic architecture is not only limited to the official buildings in
the United States but it is also used with private residential properties and buildings in the
modern society (Stevens, 2003). The decorative aspect of the columns has been considered to be
a consideration in the designs of different houses such as the Rose Hill Manor. The authenticity
of the Greek and Roman column architecture in adding a sense of age in the buildings and still
maintaining a modern outlook is considered to be an evolution that has comfortably
accommodated the ancient structures in the modern setting.
The common use of the Ionic and Corinthian columns in the neoclassic styles continue to
advance the nature of the ancient architecture element and how best to incorporate it even in the
evolving modern designs of architecture. Further, the use of the columns continues to preserve
the ancient history of the profession and reveals how much development has been witnessed
since the ancient Greek and Roman eras. In comparison, the contemporary projects project the
use of specific elements that best suited the designs that would reflect authority and at the same
time, maintain an authentic appearance that fits the western and European designs of different
buildings and structures. Evidently, both the United States and parts of Europe sought to borrow
some ideas from the Greeks and the Romans but also ensured that the final outcome portrayed
more of their authentic designs with simple touches of ancient architecture.
Conclusion
The significance of the columns in architecture is traced to historical buildings that have
also become monumental structures in the contemporary world. In contrast, the value and
significance of the columns may be understood from the comparison of the relevance and
meaning associated with columns in Ancient Greek and Roman architecture and the modern
American Iconic columns. In looking into the different column designs that were invented by the
Greeks and modified by the Romans, it is evident that the United States and Europe also found
the designs to be compelling to include them in some of their architectural designs. While the
Ionic and Corinthian columns are the most commonly used, their purpose maintains the original
intention of support and décor. The government buildings remain to be the most convenient
examples of how ancient architecture can be infused with modern designs to depict classic
architectural styles in the contemporary society.
References
Barletta, B.A. (2013). The origins of the Greek architectural orders. Cambridge
University Press
Barozzi da Vignola, G. (1999). Canon of the Five Orders, Acanthus Press
Hutton, Deborah S. (2015). A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture. John Wiley &
Sons
Johann, G. (1856). The Art of Building in Ancient and Modern Times, Or, Architecture
Illustrated. D. Appleton.
Oleson, J.P. (2009). The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the
Classical World. Oxford University Press
Stevens, J. C. (2003). Classical Architecture: An Introduction to Its Vocabulary and
Essentials, With a Select Glossary of Terms. W. W. Norton & Company
Summerson, J. (1992). The Classical Language of Architecture. The MIT Press
Ekphrasis
The American Supreme Court building is one that has a rich history in relation to its
structure and majestic appearance. The frontispiece manifests the superiority of the columns as
elements of architecture and the power they hold in magnifying the authority of a building. The
Supreme Court Building’s triangular pediment encrypted with the motto of the justice
department of the United States “Equal Justice Under Law”. The pediment of the building also
has the sculpture of Liberty who is seen seated on the throne and surrounded by the
representative figures of Order and Authority. The columns all follow the classical order, where
the Corinthian stands out in bold. At the foot of the building’s entrance are two statues that stand
on either side of the entrance before the beginning of the flight of stairs leading up to the
columns and entrance of the building. The statues represent different aspects of law and justice
whereby, on the left is the female statue of “Contemplation of Justice” while on the right is the
male statue of “Guardian of Law”.

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