Modify according to originalIncluding:1) Introduction 2) Review of Lit 3) Methods 4) General Project Conclusions 5) Overall Understanding of Research Process10 resources2 research method(1.questionnaire 2. another research method for satisfaction for hotel security)
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International Hotel Security Issues
Institution Affiliation
Security is the protection of individuals or property from harm and destruction and is
essential at all levels ranging from national, organizational, institutional, and household levels.
In this case, hotel security involves the measures that are laid out to ensure that the hotel guests,
both day users and in-house guests, including employees and hotel property, are protected from
any form of harm or destruction (Hilliard & Baloglu, 2008). This is especially critical in
international hotels that serve clients from diverse backgrounds, some possessing high standards
of security preferences. It is the responsibility of management to ensure that they meet the
security needs of the customers as well as their employees thoroughly. This paper seeks to
explore issues relating to international hotel security and how they impact the hotel set up,
reputation, and clientele. It hence leads to our research question, what is the implication of the
types of hotel security and providers to the hotel. Most of the research will be based on
qualitative research methods, mostly from database articles.
Literature Review
Consumer and Employee Satisfaction
According to Ghazi, the global increase in the reported cases of insecurity in hotels in
the last decade includes and not limited to terrorism, kidnap, burglary, blackmail, robbery with
violence, and the invasion of privacy (Ghazi, 2015). This increase has brought about the need
for stringent security measures in the interest of the hotels and clients. The most significant
benefit of investing in security is customer satisfaction, which translates into an increase in
demand and revenue. Guests value places where they are assured of safety and peace of mind
without compromise (Chauhan, Shukla, and Negi, 2018). According to Berezina et al., satisfied
consumers are more likely to become loyal customers and also to recommend others. Positive
reviews on security from such customers, increase the reputation of the hotel, and create
customer loyalty and new investors (Hilliard and Baloglu, 2008). It is imperative to note that
sometimes, guests are a threat to security. In this case, there is a need to ensure that at the
check-in point all guests undergo security check-up to reinforce security for all stakeholders
(Luongo, 2011)
Types of Security providers
Three-star, four-star, and five-star hotels which are the standard classifications for most
international hotels employ different types of security setups. It is stated by Banda that there are
two main types of security providers that are in-house and contract security providers.
Although they serve the primary role of providing security, these two types of security
providers vary in several aspects, and both possess advantages and disadvantages (Banda,
2018). In-house security providers who are also known as proprietary security providers are
owned by the hotel, which is responsible for hiring and terminating security personnel. The
hotel is also entirely responsible for the wages and benefits of security personnel.
The prime benefit of in-house security is that it promotes a feeling of the loyalty of the
security personnel to the company enhancing service provision (Chan & Lam, 2013). The
security personnel is more familiar with the layout of the hotel since they are trained to the
specialized needs of the company. They are, therefore, able to provide advanced services. Inhouse security suffers lower employee turnover, which allows management to create beneficial
relationships with the guests and other employees. However, this type is expensive because the
hotel is responsible for hiring and selecting the security personnel, conducting background
checks, paying wages and benefits, and the most crucial acquiring insurance policy for the staff.
These tasks require many resources. Replacing security personnel is a daunting and timeconsuming task because of the vetting and hiring of new employees.
Contract security providers, on the other hand, is owned by professional security
companies and work on a contract basis with the hotel. The main advantage of contract security
is that the security company takes care of staffing, wages and benefits, training, making
background checks, and obtaining policies. These enable the hotel to focus on other important
matters (Chauhan, Shukla & Negi, 2018). Hiring and firing of personnel are done immediately
since contract companies often have a pool of employees on standby. Contract security also
reduces the costs of internal infrastructure, enabling the hotel to enjoy economies of scale (Iqbal
and Dad, 2013). However, these companies experience very high turnover, which minimizes the
loyalty to the hotel, affecting their performance. There is also a likelihood of a rift between the
security personnel and the other employees since they are not employed by the same person.
According to research, international hotels should engage both in-house and contract security
providers. This is to maximize the benefits of both types ensuring all loopholes are covered to
maintain optimal levels of security.
Examples of security measures
The security measures that an international hotel chooses to employ vary from one hotel
to another (Groenenboom and Jones, 2003). According to Enz, security policies are dependent
on the structure and profile of the hotel, the location, the capacity, security needs, and the
economy of the hotel (Enz, 2009). The first step towards ensuring security is to train employees
across all levels on the importance of safety its maintenance. The training and advancement
should be regularly to stay updated on how to combat new forms of security threats. The layout
of the hotel structure should enhance physical security by controlling the level of access to the
hotel. Perimeter control also restricts access to the hotel. Proper lighting should be done to
ensure that any dark corners and corridors are well lit (Clifton, 2012).
The research conducted is aimed at providing mostly a theoretical perspective of
international hotel security and types, including security providers. From the articles reviewed,
there is a need for continued research on the topic of global hotel security. It is based on our
research question on what is the implication of the types of hotel security and providers to the
hotel? The continued change and advancement in technology show the need for continued
development and enhancement of security, especially around international hotels. This is
because of the increase in international threats to security, mostly terrorism. Security is a
primary determinant of the performance and profitability of any hotel. International hotels, in
particular, should invest in high-level security standards based on the kind of guests they
receive and accommodate. Effective security programs earn an international hotel a positive
reputation across the globe and thereby increase profitability. As earlier stated, ensuring the
security of people and property is the responsibility of international hotel management.
Banda, T. E. (2018). The challenges facing private security companies in retaining clients: a
case study in Gauteng shopping malls (Master’s thesis, University of South Africa).
Retrieved from
Berezina, K., Cobanoglu, C., Miller, B. L., & Kwansa, F. A. (2012). The impact of information
security breach on hotel guest perception of service quality, satisfaction, revisit
and word‐of‐mouth. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality
991-1010. Retrieved from
Management, 24(7),
Chan, E. W., & Lam, D. (2013). Hotel safety and security systems: Bridging the gap between
managers and guests. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 202-216.
Retrieved from
Chauhan, A., Shukla, A., & Negi, P. (2018). Safety and security measures adopted by the
hotels and their impact on customer relationship management. International Journal of
Research-Granthaalayah, 6(1), 118-125. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1162714
Clifton, D. (2012). Hospitality Security: Managing Security in Today’s Hotel, Lodging,
Entertainment, and Tourism Environment (1st ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Enz, C. A. (2009). Safety and Security in U.S. Hotels. The Center for Hospitality Research
Cornell University, 9(13), 1-12. Retrieved from
Enz, C. A. (2009). The Physical safety and security features of U.S. hotels. The Center for
Hospitality Research Cornell University, 50(4), 533-560.
Ghazi, K. M. (2015). Safety and security measures in Egyptian hotels. Journal of Hotel and
Business Management, 4(1), 1-11. Retrieved from
Groenenboom, K., & Jones, P. (2003). Issues of security in hotels. International Journal of
Contemporary Hospitality Management, 15(1), 14-19. Retrieved from
Hilliard, T. W., & Baloglu, S. (2008). Safety and security as part of the hotel servicescape for
meeting planners. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 9(1), 15-34. Retrieved from
Iqbal, Z., & Dad, A. M. (2013). Outsourcing: A review of trends, winners & losers and future
directions. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(8), 91-107. Retrieved
Luongo, M. T. (2011, June 25). At a hotel on business? Be on alert, too. The New York
Times [New York].

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