My easy step for you:1. essay topic is in the first file “ewrt2 ctc3”, follow this topic2. you can use the second file “Youjia Zheng Source Log”, to get more information. (You must use 8 Sources from the Source Log in the Research Paper , quotes and PIE format). the works cited format in “Youjia Zheng Source Log” has a lot of mistakes, please do not just copy that. Make sure your Works Cited is correct. Thank you!3. topic sentence should be” topic+comment”, thesis statement should be “Topic + Comment Argument”3. be sure you read all of the following requirements and then do this essay. I do not want to ask you change anything that here has already asked for. That will spent you more time.GoalThis is designed to test your argument, synthesis, and critical thinking skills by highlighting how well you can present your findings in an argumentative, persuasive research project. Instructions Task: Write a 1500+ argumentative analysis research paper, written in response to a research question of your choice about monsters.DUE Dates: Essay Requirements:An introduction that provides context on the topic, eases the reader into your essay and has a “hook” that grabs people’s attention.A thesis statement or controlling idea that takes a strong stand and is narrow enough to cover within the page limit e.g. if your umbrella topic is “The nudism movement promotes a healthy body image” you would have to narrow that down into a more focused topic that fits into that larger topic.Research is a secondary concern and personal voice is first.Transitional topic sentences that are clear, provocative, develop your thesis, and provide unity in your essay.Body paragraphs that have a transition, a topic sentence, multiple examples, and a concluding sentence.You must use 8 Sources from the Source Log in the Research Paper The Quote Sandwich model (lead-in, quote, and analysis of quote) must be used with each quote.Some analysis of all your supporting examples.A conclusion that offers some ideas about what can be done about the situation.Strong sentences that are both grammatically correct and sophisticated.MLA in-text citations and a Works Cited page are required for this paper. PAPER FORMAT:o 1500+ words (about 8+ pages).THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE THE WORKS CITED PAGE!o All drafts must be typed and double-spaced.o Size 12 Times New Roman Fonto Have: Name, Class, Date, Assignment, and Topic in the upper left-hand corner.o A title that is not GENERICo Paper MUST follow MLA format and MLA citation guidelines. What A Successful Essay Will HaveIntroduction:A title specific to the topicAn attention getterBackground on the topic (please make it clear which prompt you are answering)End with your thesisInclude a clearly stated thesis (your opinion – your 1-2 sentence response to the essay prompt) which speaks to the “so what” of the issue and is not merely a list plan of development.Body:Topic sentence that is related to the thesisSupporting evidenceQuotes from the text (Remember to cite the quotes)Consideration of and rebuttal against the other side of the topicConclusion:DO NOT bring up a new topicA suggestion of the consequences of your position for society, individuals, what you want to happen in the future, etc.Works Cited:Please include a Works Cited page at the end of your paper.Please make sure the Works Cited page follows MLA formatting rules.Evaluation Criteria for Your Essay:I will use the following criteria to evaluate your position paper:Have you engaged the readers’ interest at the beginning and throughout the paper?Have you chosen an arguable position and defined it carefully (e.g. placing the issue in its historical or cultural context, citing specific instances to make the issue seem less abstract, or establishing or redefining the terms of the debate)?Have you organized your paper into an introduction, body (containing several paragraphs), and conclusion?Have you included at the end of the introduction a thesis statement that asserts a clear, unequivocal position on the issue you have chosen and, possibly, forecasts the stages of the argument, identifying the main reason or reasons that you will develop and support in the essay?Have you given reasons why readers should take your position seriously?Have you organized your reasons into a logical order (e.g. placing the strongest reason last and the second-strongest reason first, with the other reasons in the middle)?Have you supported each reason with examples, facts, analogies, statistics, anecdotes, or quotes from authorities?Have you anticipated readers’ questions and their positions on an issue, counterarguing as needed?Have you signaled explicitly the move from one topic to the next using forecasting statements, transitions, topic sentences, rhetorical questions, and/or summaries?Have you cited at least 8 sources in your essay, using MLA in-text (parenthetical) citation strategies correctly?Have you integrated the sources into your essay, using signal phrases to introduce long quotations or incorporating shorter quotations into the sentences smoothly?Have you included an MLA Works Cited at the end of your essay?Are the sentences clear and correct?
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Youjia Zheng
Amy Leonard
De Anza College
Critical Thinking Challenge #4
Researching Paper
1. 2 Primary Sources
Swart Jac. Ethical Issues of Technology Used for Animal Breeding. 2014.
Readability Score: 56
CARS Checklist: 21
Argument: In some countries, it is illegal to subject animals to suffering through
biotechnology procedures. Some of the regulations are based on the utilitarian point of view,
where the procedures are not considered to impact significantly on the welfare of the majority in
society. However, this does not imply the acceptability of technology in animals. It is a moral
issue where the possible consequences for the welfare of the animals are mainly considered.
Women are considered to be governed by a code of morality where the involved people are
expected to have some set of moral rules that promote respect for the animals.
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Notes: Ethics and animal welfare express the form of moral obligations that humans
should adhere to and explain the reasons for following these principles because animals are
perceived as members of the moral circle. They have inherent animal rights that are easily
violated by subjecting the animals to biotechnological procedures.
Wheeler Mathew B. Transgenic Animals in Agriculture. Knowledge Project.
Readability Score: 48
CARS Checklist: 18
Argument: Ethicists have varying views on biotechnology research. Most of their
arguments are founded on the principles of the moral importance of humans and animals. Human
beings have something special, and all of them have important moral characteristics that are not
inherent in animals. A hierarchy of moral importance exists, where human is the fundamental
foundation, followed by the primates, and other animal species like rats, mice, and dogs, among
others. A definite difference exists in non-human animals and human beings, although the two
categories are morally equal.
Note: The permission to modify animals through biotechnology is not guaranteed by
reference to the evolutionary order, the use of animals in other contexts, or even the
consideration of the relative status. Therefore, the exclusive concentration on the aspect of ethics
and morality can hinder the illumination of subjecting animals to biotechnology procedures.
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2. 4 Scholarly Journal Articles
Almond Brenda. “Commodifying Animals: Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering of Animals.”
Journal of Health, Risk & Society. Vol 2(200) 1, 95-105.
Readability: 52
CARS Checklist: 17
Argument: Subjecting animals to biotechnology procedures can have detrimental
impacts that can result in welfare issues. Some can contribute to negative welfare, and it is
usually challenging to predict the effect of a particular procedure on an individual animal and its
environment. The high levels of monitoring are required to achieve more than regular outcomes
since there is no adequate predictability. After the welfare issues are established together with
ordinary animals, the level of monitoring can be reduced, but the process is significantly prone to
errors. To support the monitoring process, the modified animals may need to have special
passports that, when in the midst of other animals to give them special considerations.
Notes: Ethical backgrounds highly criticize biotechnology methods because of the low
level of predicting the results. This raises welfare concern with the opponents of the processes,
arguing that detrimental impacts may be experienced in society.
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Mickey Gjerris, Anna Olsson, Peter Sandoe. Animal Biotechlogy and Animal Welfare. Danish
Centre for Bioethics and Risk Assessment. 2006.
Readability Score: 53
CARS Checklist: 18
Argument: The purpose of biotechnology modification of animals is to produce animals
that under-or overexpresses specific genes, or that demonstrate a mutated gene. In all these cases,
the body function of the animal is an animal is disrupted. This gives an opportunity for
addressing the welfare problem because the intention of introducing the change is to affect the
animal in the desired ways. The welfare is channeled towards the pain that is deliberately caused
to the animal, which results in other forms of suffering. The animal is denied its right to engage
in its normal behaviors just like the others of its kind, which concludes that it is not ethical to
subject animals to biotechnology processes.
Note: The subjective experience of the animal has ethical significance. It is unethical and
violates animal welfare, where animals are allowed to fulfill the concept of specifies-species
potential concerning its subjective experience.
Ormandy Elizabeth, H Dale Julie and Griffin Gilly (2011). Genetic Engineering of Animals:
Ethical Issues, Including Welfare Concerns. The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2011.
52(5): 544–550.
Readability Score: 52.4
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CARS Checklist: 18
Argument: The generation of genetically modified animals in most cases includes
sacrificing some animals or their parts to surgical procedures. Some of them include surgical
embryo transfer and vasectomy. These procedures are specifically applied in the reproduction of
animals. Before a vivid conclusion is made on a single experiment, many animals are required to
compare the samples. The resultant animal species may suffer from a range of defections, such
as reduced fertility, lameness, and other behavioral challenges.
Note: Subjecting animals to biotechnology violates the essence and the purpose of a
creature, which is not ethical. The operations also violate the value of animals in the context of
dignity and integrity, which is considered morally wrong. It also raises the issue of intellectual
property and patenting of the animals that have specific behaviors and abilities.
Thompson Paul B. Current Ethical Issues in Animal Biotechnology. Journal of Reproduction,
Fertility and Development, 2008, 20, 67-73.
Readability Score: 51
CARS Checklist: 19
Argument: The ethical approach to the use of biotechnology procedures in animals is
guided by the principle of 3R, which represents the efforts to refine, reduce, and replace. This
approach implies that experiments that use animals together with the respective organizations
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have obligations of minimizing pain and discomfort in animals through a combination of various
procedures. The procedures should strive to achieve refined results and minimize as possible the
need for using many animals. These requirements may seem easy to follow, but in practice, they
may become cumbersome. For example, to achieve appealing results, a large sample size of
animals may be subjected to the experiments.
Notes: The principle of 3R in biotechnology is subjected to some ethical criticism. The
animals are subjected to harm by the fact that the modification of their genes makes them unique
and lack the characteristics of the original species. The processes, therefore, violate their
integrity and rights as animals.
2.2 Newspaper
Church George. “What is Biotechnology: How are Scientists Putting Nature’s Machinery to use
for the Good of Humanity, and how could Things go Wrong?” Future of Life.

Benefits & Risks of Biotechnology

Readability Score: 59
CARS Checklist: 21
Argument: Manipulating animal behavior and movements can have significant impacts
on society. For example, some animals, such as male mosquitos, can be released by scientists
into the wild to produce sterile offspring. They can have their genes manipulated to avert their
risks of spreading diseases such as malaria and the Zika virus. The operations need adequate risk
assessments that are equipped with necessary measures to make the process possible.
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Note: The modification of animals through biotechnology is a controversial venture. It
can be impossible to identify with certainty the impacts that a mosquito exaction could have on
the environment. There is a chance that the gene drive could mutate after being released in the
wild, and spread genes that are never planned by the researchers. Even with adequate strategies
to reverse the faulty gene drive, the technologists may discover that it is difficult to control the
gene drives after they are released from the labs.
Schwarzburg Judith. B and Ferrari Arianna. (2016). Super-muscly Pigs. Issues in Science and
Readability Score: 56
CARS Checklist: 19
Argument: Although biotechnology on animals is designed to create an understanding of
the cognitive abilities and other potentials of animals, the processes drift some animals away
from the human being. For example, most individuals empathize with animals like dogs and cats,
but biotechnology shifts their moral status as farm animals. This creates a moral challenge due to
the inherent values that these animals have in the lives of human beings. The processes are
criticized from the perspectives of ethics since it compromises human moral development. They
demonstrate and perpetuate conflicts and dilemmas concerning the direction that society should
take on the subject.
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Notes: The subject of biotechnology and ethics is closely related to politics. It depicts a
problem of values and ethics because technology has negative impacts on the welfare of animals.
It also shapes the pattern in which a society perceives animals.
3.2 Data Driven Sources
Brom Frans. W. and Schroten Egbert. Ethics and Animal Biotechnology: An Analysis against the
Background of Public Policy in the Netherlands.
Readability Score: 54
CARS Checklist: 17
Argument: A growing concern has been experienced based on the moral status of
animals. This subject has had significant impacts on biotechnology and the processes that
involve animals. Some factions of the society have been advocating for the consideration of
animals as objects of moral concern. This implies condemning and criticizing all forms of
procedures that are considered to be cruelty against animals. They are perceived as having a
sense of suffering and, therefore, any manipulation of their genetic composition to influence their
behaviors and movements is considered as a public offense.
Note: the industry of biotechnology is considered as a public problem, which can extend
to intensive cattle breeding. Some people in society realize that animal welfare is threatened by
biotechnology procedures, especially in farms. They, therefore, face the risk of being reduced to
production machines, which is against the moral status of animals.
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Straughan Roger. Ethics, Morality and Animal Biotechnology. Biotechnology and Biological
Science Research Council.
Readability Score: 54
CARS Checklist: 19
Argument: The significance of animal ethics in biotechnology is placed on animal
welfare rather than the use of an animal. The significant difference between natural material and
animals is that the latter can be used farewell or badly. Animals can be handled in a way that
promotes or diminish their well-being. They also can have a pleasant or unpleasant experience.
These qualities of animal welfare are, at times, considered in the matters of emotional response,
especially if the animal that is used in the experiment is displays soulfulness like sheep.
Note: The fundamental issue that is addressed in the source relates to the moral
community. Members of this community are considered worthy and have high regard for the
respect of animals. They consider animals as members of a community since they use various
forms of non-human languages and communication. They, therefore, consider animals as having
ethical and moral status and subjecting them to biotechnology procedures to modify their
behaviors or movements is morally wrong.
4.2 Web-based Sources
Brown Angelina. Animal Ethics.
Readability Score: 54
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CARS Checklist: 19
Argument: The need to protect animals has attracted active involvement and attention in
animal ethics. Biotechnology and its involvement in animal research is a global phenomenon
whose consensus is expected to take a relatively long time before being realized. The complexity
of the issue is attached to the need to guarantee the present and future existence of animals while
striving to get scientific answers to some of the existing problems. This is aimed at saving lives,
especially in mankind, although the progress is faced with some regulations against cruelty to
Note: Animal rights activists and conservationists strive to advocate for educational and
political means for addressing biotechnology procedures on animals. They consider most of
these procedures as inhumane and causing suffering to animals and, therefore, term them as
unethical. There is a need for improving increasing public awareness and support for animal
ethics in scientific research.
Breed Michale, D. & Sanchez Leticia. “Both Environment and Genetic Makeup Influence
Behavior.” 2010.
Readability Score: 56.3
CARS Checklist: 18
Argument: The influence of genes through their morphology and physiology can be used
to develop a framework for shaping the behaviors and movements of animals. The environment
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can be used to affect the physiological and morphological development of the animals, which in
turn manipulates their movements, shapes, and internal working. Some of the animal movements
are learned through imprinting and development as a means of survival.
Note: The use of biotechnology to manipulate the movements and behaviors in an animal
can raise ethical questions in the ability of the animals to cope with their environments. Some
errors may arise in the process leading to a gene mutation in genes. This can have detrimental
impacts on the survival of an animal in its environment. For example, the process can impact the
ability of an animal to get food when some of the information in the genes is altered.
5.2. Book or e-book
Ishii Tetsuya. Genome-edited Livestock: Ethics and Social Acceptance. Office of Health and
Safety, Hokkaido University. 2017.
Readability Score: 49
CARS Checklist: 18
Argument: Animal welfare is addressed by people who are also involved in
biotechnology processes. Ethics, therefore, becomes an integral subject in the development of
biotechnology that is related to animals. Although some of the proponents of the technology
argue it can be used on animals to produce products like hides and fiber rather than food, they
still face stern opposition from ethical grounds on the handling of the animals and their rights.
The supports of the processes further assert that there is little difference between the
conventional animals and the ones that have been subjected to biotechnology processes. Overall,
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modern society is largely opposed to biotechnology on animals, and more efforts may be
required to make the procedures acceptable.
Note: Biotechnology on animals to modify their behaviors and movement is argued from
the ethics of consequentialism, which explores the goal of these experiments. If the procedure
stands to benefit many people, then it is accepted. However, biotechnology on animals is not
widely spread in most parts of the world, which forms the foundation of stern criticism.
Nuffield Council on Bioethics. The Ethics of Research Involving Animals. 2005. Published by
Nuffield Council on Bioethics 28 Bedford Square London WC1B 3JS. Retrieved
Readability Score: 55
CARS Checklist: 20
Argument: Pain and suffering of animals are considered with a lot of emphasis in most
developed countries. In some states, licenses are not given for researches that are perceived to
cause severe pain and distress to animals. In some situations, even the research with mild pain is
required to be performed under anesthesia or other pain-relieving medicines for the animals.
However, animals that are in abundant supply can be killed humanely to harvest some tissues for
research. Overall, licenses for research are awarded through a case by case analysis based on the
perceived animal suffering and the goal of the research.
Note: Deontological and consequentialist elements are used to explain the issue of
biotechnology on animals. Basing on these aspects, there has been a ban on specific species of
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because the procedures have been considered to cause significant pain through some types of
6.2. Choice Sources
Perzigian Andrew B. Detailed Discussion of Genetic Engineering and Animal Rights: The Legal
Terrain and Ethical Underpinnings. Michigan State University College of Law.2003.
Readability Score: 53
CARS Checklist: 18
Argument: Using biotechnology on animals is not only perceived as a threat to natural
biodiversity but also a heightened level of animal mistreatments. Proponents of animal ethics
base their defense on the concept of species integrity. This approach argues that all animals,
whether domesticated or wild, have a natural right to have its genes remaining intact regardless
of the situations. The argument supports the banning of any form of biotechnology procedure on
animals. The species integrity provides a clear distinction between plants and rocks. It argues
that animals would still experience pain or pleasure by think, moving, seeing, communicating,
and nurturing their young, among others.
Note: Animals demand consideration than plants and rocks, even without considering
ethics. Biotechnology procedures in animals can, therefore, be considered as mistreatment, and
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from an ethical perspective, it can be termed as a violation of the animals’ rights. It amounts to
cruelty, abuse, and unethical.
Simmons Danielle. Genetic Inequality: Human Genetic Engineering. Nature Education.
1(1):173. 2008.
Readability Score: 51
CARS Checklist: 18
Argument: Animals play significant roles in biotechnology in determining some
behaviors and modifications that can improve the lives of human beings. For example, the
Schwarzenegger mice have previously been developed to study muscle complications and
disorders that can be applied in man to reduce the muscles that prevail as human beings age. The
Belgian Blue cattle have been modified to have additional mass. However, without the right
scientific remedy, the animals continue growing. The female animals are impacted to the extent
of having compromised behavior such as defect births.
Note: Ethics arise in the transfer of these biotechnology advancements to human beings
and, therefore, these scientific advancements face high criticism. They argue that even with their
success, they are not ethical because they cannot apply to the human being. Until today, most
societies prohibit the use of biotechnology in any way that can impact the lives of people. For
example, although the Belgian Blue cattle have increased the mass weight that translates to more
beef, they cannot be used as food.
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Works Cited
Almond Brenda. “Commodifying Animals: Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering of Animals.”
Journal of Health, Risk & Society. Vol 2(200) 1, 95-105.
https://www.tandfonline. …
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