It look long but these are just responses!These are 3 student responses that needs to be responded
to. The response must be 100 words. Please use all references! Victoria Post Part IAs we learned in the last module the hippocampus plays an
important role in memory formation. Thus, it makes perfect sense that it would
be associated with contextual fear conditioning. Contextual fear conditioning
relies on the ability to remember the context that sparked fear. When a patient
has bilateral hippocampal lesions, it blocks the development of a fear response
to the context (Pinel,2018).The best example of contextual fear conditioning that I can
extrapolate from my life experiences is the fear that sets in as I’m driving
next to a semi or concrete barrier. The conditioning of this fear began when I
was kid and the numerous accidents that occurred on a specific curve on a hill
that earned the nickname “Deadman’s hill”. It made me nervous to drive next to
semis especially as some friends and family members often had to clean up the
accidents and would talk about them at home. Reinforcement of this fear
occurred when I was involved in my own accident as a teenager that involved
being ran into a concrete barrier on the highway. The accident could have been
significantly worse than it was but now when driving I will drive on the side
of the road that places the most distance from my door and the barrier or semi.
I also adjust my driving to not be next to a semi around curves whether that
means slowing down so I can get behind the semi and allow other cars to pass or
speeding up to pass them before the curve.Part IITwo treatments for
depression that utilize brain stimulation not listed in the book are
electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial direct current stimulation. The
effects of electroconvulsive therapy in older patients has been a concern for
providers due to the possible negative impact on neurocognitive functioning.
Studies have concluded that the deleterious cognitive effects of
electroconvulsive therapy in late-life depression are transient and limited but
can be increased with bilateral stimulation. Transcranial direct current
stimulation involves applying a small electrical current to the head utilizing
electrodes placed on the skin rather than implanted into the body as seen with
deep brain stimulation (Wong, et al.,2019). The currents sent through the
electrodes don’t evoke action potentials themselves but change the neural
activity of the brain by switching cortical activity from a state of
excitability to a state of inhibition. Transcranial direct current stimulation
has proven to be effective in reducing the depressive severity and the
remission rates in patients. The effects of Transcranial direct current
stimulation have shown sustained effects for up to three months while improving
overall cognitive functioning and in verbal fluency (Wong, et al.,2019).
Transcranial direct current stimulation has however shown low spatial
resolution and difficulty in defining localization of the electrodes.Mackenzie postPart I: Describe the role of the hippocampus in contextual fear
conditioning. Can you think of an
instance where you have been subjected to contextual fear conditioning?
Describe that instance. In your answer, describe the role of the hippocampus in
contextual fear conditioning.Contextual fear conditioning is a phenomenon that occurs when a
nonthreatening environment elicits a fearful response. This occurs when there
is repeated exposure to an object during a frightening situation and the
surroundings become associated with the emotional response (Pinel 2014). I have
not experienced contextual conditioning in the sense of an environment. I have
experienced fear conditioning after a car accident I was involved in. The car I
was in was a white Nissan, and ever since the accident I experience a
physiological response when I encounter a vehicle of the same make, model, and
color. The hippocampus is responsible for memory and spatial understanding and
is a key affected area during contextual fear conditioning. The hippocampus
creates a misattributed fear for the context of the stimuli instead of the
stimuli itself (Pinel 2014). Research has also noted the potential role of the
hippocampus in post-traumatic stress disorder since contextual stimuli can
often prompt episodes (Chaaya 2018).Part II: Describe two
forms of treatment for depression that utilize brain stimulation. There are many other
treatments for depression that aren’t discussed in this module. Name at least
two you know of. What is the evidence for their efficacy? Remember to properly
cite and reference your sources in APA format.One of the various treatments for depression is Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy (CBT). CBT focuses on the core concept of psychological
issues being caused by disordered patterns of behavior and how correcting this
behavior will assist in recovery (American). CBT allows for patients to be
their own harbingers for therapy to facilitate easing depressive behaviors. CBT
can be effective when paired with other forms of treatment. CBT modifies
behaviors after the onset of the depression whereas medication can assist with
biological elements since anti-depressants tend to be only 25% effective when
used as a singular treatment (Pinel 2014). Psychodynamic treatment of
depression is a combination of any depression treatments to alleviate the
symptoms holistically. Psychodynamic treatment can apply CBT, medication, and
light therapy approaches to assist a patient diagnosed with depression.
Psychodynamic therapy has been demonstrated to have successful outcomes in
several clinical roles and practice settings (Busch 2016). Hence, providing a
better option for patients than implementing just one form of treatment.Michael PostPart I: Describe the role of the hippocampus in contextual fear
conditioning. Can you think of an instance where you have been subjected to
contextual fear conditioning? Describe that instance. In your answer, describe
the role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning.Situations surround and instill meaning to events; they are
essential for remembering the past, interpreting the present, and anticipating
the future. Studies of fear conditioning and extinction suggest that a neural
circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is
involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent
behavior. Research on the neural mechanisms by which context representations
are encoded in the brain largely come from studies of associative learning in
both animals and humans. Indications have been made that the hippocampus has a
crucial role in tasks involving learning and remembering contexts. The role of
the hippocampus in encoding context representations is consistent with the
large literature on the role of the hippocampus in spatial representation and
navigation. Growing up, I remember my brother experiencing this. One time we
were at the grocery store and my brother witnesses another kid throwing a fit
because he did not get a candy. After a while, this kid’s parents caved in and
got him a candy. My brother figured he would do the same. He did not get the
same reaction from my mother. Instead, he got a whooping and did not get the
candy he wanted. I believe this was the last time he did that. He knew he would
be in trouble if he threw a fit like that again. My brother related the butt
whooping to the associated behavior and came to the realization that it was not
worth it. One incident conditioned the fear of the whooping in him.Part II: Describe two
forms of treatment for depression that utilize brain stimulation. There are many other treatments for depression that aren’t
discussed in this module. Name at least two you know of. What is the evidence
for their efficacy? Remember to properly cite and reference your sources in APA
format.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive
procedure that uses magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain to
improve symptoms of depression. TMS is used when other depression treatments do
not work. Depression is a curable condition, but for some people, standard
treatments are not effective. Repetitive TMS is used when treatments such as
medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy) do not work. If rTMS works,
depression symptoms may improve or go away completely. Symptom relief may take
a few weeks of treatment. The effectiveness of rTMS may improve as researchers
learn more about techniques, the number of stimulations required and the best
sites on the brain to stimulate.Deep brain stimulation, or D.B.S., has been performed for
decades to help people control the tremors of Parkinson’s disease. In treating
depression, surgeons thread an electrode into an area of the brain that sits
beneath the crown of the head which is known to be especially active in people
with severe depression. Running electrical current into that region, known as
Brodmann Area 25, successfully shuts down its activity, resulting in relief of
depression symptoms in many patients. The electrode is connected to a battery
that is embedded in the chest. The procedure involves a single surgery; the
implant provides continuous current from then on.

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