Midterm ExamShort Answer QuestionsWill include six short answer questions of which you will have to answer five. Each question will be worth 10 points, approximately 2 points for each subsection. This portion of the exam will be closed book.Essay QuestionsWill include three of the following essay questions. You will be required to answer two. Each response should include five paragraphs in the form of a persuasive essay. The first paragraph will include your answer to the essay question and a description of your three main arguments. The second, third and fourth paragraphs will describe your first, second and third arguments, respectively. Each paragraph will include a thesis statement and incorporate evidence from readings presented throughout the semester. Each essay will be worth 25 points. 1. Are cities dying? (If so why and if not why not)2. Is sprawl good or bad?3. Can we build ourselves out of our congestion woes?4. Are homeowners better citizens?5. Do households value school quality and how is this measured?6. Are cities greener? (and/or Can we make cities greener?)Essay Grading Rubric5 points for appropriate essay structure5 points for writing style (are sentences clear, no spelling or grammatical errors)3 points for introduction (do you clearly present your answer and the arguments you will make to support your answer)3 points for argument 1 (do you clearly present your main argument and provide supporting evidence from the reading)3 points for argument 2 (do you clearly present your main argument and provide supporting evidence from the reading)3 points for argument 3 (do you clearly present your main argument and provide supporting evidence from the reading)3 points for conclusion (do you summarize your main arguments and perhaps share an intuitive reasoning for your argument)I attached 3 of the small essays below, try to change the words. The other 3 you can do by your self.https://umb.umassonline.net/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_64507_1&content_id=_3253130_1&mode=reset readings for everything
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question_4_of_the_essay_question_.docx
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Question 4: Are homeowners better citizens?
Answer is based on : Are Homeowners Better Citizens? Homeownership and Community
Participation in the United States
Author(s): Brian J. McCabe
Introduction
Yes for two reason:
1. Buying s house is a financial commitment that could lead them to participate as a mean
of protecting their principal investment.
2. ownership could increase participation by increasing residential stability , enabling home
owners to overcome institutional barrier and develop social networks that drive the
community
Paragraph two (residential stability)



Two factors underlie the increased stability of homeowners. On one hand, the decision to
purchase a home frequently signals a household’s intention to make a long-term
commitment to the community. homeownership is an expression of long-term stability,
rather than a cause of it. On the other hand, homeownership increases the transaction
costs associated with switching residences.
Therefore Long-term stability serves to deepen place-based attachment in local
communities. After living in a community for a substantial period of time, residents are
more likely to become involved in efforts to improve their community for reasons
unrelated to their financial gain.
The research finds that residential stability increases the likelihood of electoral
participation but is unrelated to participation in membership groups. By stabilizing
households within communities, homeownership can help individuals overcome
institutional barriers or develop social networks that lead them to participate in the formal
political process.
Paragraph three ( Protecting financial commitment)


After accounting for residential stability, homeownership remains a significant predictor
of participation in both local and national elections, although the effect is significantly
stronger for local electoral participation. I also report that homeownership is positively
associated with participation in neighborhood groups and civic groups but unrelated to
other types of group membership
These findings provide indirect support for the hypothesis that homeowners participate in
neighborhood groups, civic associations and local elections because of the financial
investments they make in their communities.
Paragraph four: more evidence from class power point.
Paragraph five. You own conclusion

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