Learning Journal•Make an entry after each class. Notebook or computer.•Think about what you have learned. What does it mean to you? Do not write a chronology of the class.make sense to you.Writing Learning Journal Entries :1.Purpose (#1): help you think more deeply about –qWhat you are learning,2.Purpose (#2): reflect and connect.3.Purpose (#3): practice an ‘art-form’ that will add greater depth and enjoyment to your learning.Basic Requirements for a Good MarkHave enough entries.2 to 5 are too few.Have more than 6.•Use the pronoun “I” so I know you are ‘speaking.’ Think about what you are learning and what it means to you•You may begin with what happened in class.Move onward in your writing to reflect on what this meant for you.•Low marks (<12/20) for simply listing what happened in class.Examples of Poor and good writingWe began the class with Dr. Howard telling us about the class.He then had trouble with the computer system.He asked us a question about cosmic dust.After that he talked about the models he brought to class.We listened to him tell us about nucleus and electrons and some of the forces. ……..Class started with a problem of the computer working; Dr. Howard reflected that sometimes looking at the problem overall will offer a solution.I have begun to do this and it is surprising how many problems I can solve with this idea.Then he asked if we thought we were stardust.What a question! I talked with my group and we began to get an answer.We think we are stardust because we all came from the primal explosion. I had never considered this question.So I am thinking, what else haven’t I asked myself?...........Final word on journals•Journals are fun to write.•Date each entry.••Use reflection.•Talk about how you connect your learnings to your life!•Suggest ways you might apply your knowledge. 2019100801145319_01_creating_good_learning_journals.pptx 19_10_class_06_2_slope_processes________unsung_hazards___.pptx 19_10_class_07_2_group_5_modified_weathering_and_erosion.pptx 19_10_class_08_2_goup_8_rivers_and_flooding__1_.pdf 19_10_class_09_1_extraterrestrial_impacts.pptx Unformatted Attachment Preview CREATING GOOD LEARNING JOURNALS A HELPFUL GUIDE Matter, Minerals & Rocks 2 THOUGHTS ON THE COURSE  This course is more than remembering and understanding. Quizzes are here.  A lot has to do with applying, analyzing, evaluating and even creating. Journals and tests are here.  This is Bloom’s [revised] Taxonomy. Matter, Minerals & Rocks 3 LEARNING JOURNAL • Make an entry after each class. Notebook or computer. • Think about what you have learned. What does it mean to you? Do not write a chronology of the class. • As you reflect you will begin to see how you are learning and how you connect your learnings to your life to make sense to you. Matter, Minerals & Rocks 4 WRITING LEARNING JOURNAL ENTRIES 1. Purpose (#1): help you think more deeply about – ❑ What you are learning, ❑ What it means to you, and ❑ How it connects with your thoughts, life experiences, and/or the media. 2. Purpose (#2): reflect and connect. 3. Purpose (#3): practice an ‘art-form’ that will add greater depth and enjoyment to your learning. 4. Purpose (#4): give powerful intellectual tools with critical thinking for success. BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD MARK • Have enough entries. 2 to 5 are too few. Have more than 6. • Length: 100 words to 1000. Your choice, depending on your interest. • Use the pronoun “I” so I know you are ‘speaking.’ • Think about what you are learning and what it means to you. • You may begin with what happened in class. Move onward in your writing to reflect on what this meant for you. • One entry per class. Date each entry. • Low marks (<12/20) for simply listing what happened in class. EXAMPLES OF POOR AND GOOD WRITING We began the class with Dr. Howard telling us about the class. He then had trouble with the computer system. He asked us a question about cosmic dust. After that he talked about the models he brought to class. We listened to him tell us about nucleus and electrons and some of the forces. …….. Class started with a problem of the computer working; Dr. Howard reflected that sometimes looking at the problem overall will offer a solution. I have begun to do this and it is surprising how many problems I can solve with this idea. Then he asked if we thought we were stardust. What a question! I talked with my group and we began to get an answer. We think we are stardust because we all came from the primal explosion. I had never considered this question. So I am thinking, what else haven’t I asked myself?........... FINAL WORD ON JOURNALS • Journals are fun to write. • Use reflection. • They may have short entries but > 6 entries.
• Talk about how you
connect your learnings to
your life!
• Date each entry.
• They help you learn.
• Suggest ways you might
apply your knowledge.
Slope Processes and Subsidence
Unsung Hazards
Dr. Howard Donohoe
GEOL 1208.1, Environmental Geology
Class 006-2, Wednesday, 9 October 2019
Turtle Mountain, Frank, AB. Location of largest
rock slide in Canadian history, 29 April 1903.
Today
1.
2.
3.
Reflection.
Preview of river and coastal processes.
Slope processes.
Earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador. Relatively
unconsolidated volcanic rocks ruptures and flowed down
slope during a Richter 7.6 earthquake.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
2
Reflection
We often don’t
think of the
hazards associated
with slope
processes.
Single boulders or
large masses are
very real hazards!
Slope Processes & Subsidence
3
Preview of Topics to Come
What are the two stream processes?
What are the two coastal processes?
What are two tsunami processes?
Erosion.
Deposition.

Slope Processes & Subsidence
4
Slope Failure: Turtle Mountain – Frank slide
Slope Processes & Subsidence
5
Turtle Mountain – Frank slide
Slope Processes & Subsidence
6
Today
1.
2.
3.
Reflection.
Preview of river and coastal processes.
Slope processes.
Earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador. Relatively
unconsolidated volcanic rocks ruptures and flowed down
slope during a Richter 7.6 earthquake.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
7
Topics

Objectives and Learning Outcomes.
Types of mass movements and causes.
Environmental geology.
Interventions and hazard mitigation.
Subsidence.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
8
Objectives – Slope Processes & Subsidence

To understand relentless importance of mass movements
on slopes.
To develop an insight into the geological circumstances
for mass movements to happen.
To learn the mitigation actions that minimize affects on
humans.
To understand why subsidence happens.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
9
Learning Outcomes – Slope Processes and
Subsidence
1.
2.
Name and describe the types of slope processes
based on time and space.
Explain the environmental geological circumstances
for initiation of these slope movements—both
primary and secondary.
3.
Apply your knowledge of cause and affect for slope
failures and subsidence to suggest mitigation.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
10
Types of Slope Processes

Falls.
Slumps and slides.
Flows and avalanches.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
11
All of these are termed Slope Failure.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
12
Factors Influencing Slope Stability

The force of gravity acts to tear the mountains down.
Gravity is the great leveler. Isostasy moves mountains up.
Mass movement on slopes occurs anytime downward pull
of gravity overcomes frictional forces resisting it.
Shearing stress is the down slope pull on the rock or
debris.
Shear strength is the resistance to the shear stress; once
overcome, movement will occur.
Factors that overcome shear strength: lack of cohesion and
fluids such as water.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
13
Angle of Repose

Maximum angle at
which material is
stable.
Angle varies with
material, shape, and
other irregularities.
Weathering changes
stability.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
14
Affects of
Fluids
Slope failure
from possible
septic system
water seepage.
Septic tank
seepage
produced loss
of cohesion
and slope
failure.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
15
Effects of
Vegetation
Intense logging may
create slope instability.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
Alaskan road cut.
16
Landslide – Debris Flow in Tibet
From NASA
Slope Processes & Subsidence
17
Landslide After a Few Months
Slope Processes & Subsidence
18
Interventions and Mitigations
Water pressure behind a wall will exert a huge pressure, even
small walls such as driveway walls, are susceptible. A simple
solution is to bleed the water from behind the wall.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
19
Interventions and Mitigations
Stone wall, east side Citadel Hill. Water drainage to
decrease pressure on wall and prevent collapse.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
20
Interventions and Mitigations
No drainage from
behind wall;
pressure pushing
wall into collapse.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
21
Interventions and Mitigations
Slope Processes & Subsidence
22
Interventions and Mitigations
Rock bolting is very effective.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
23
Interventions –Nova Centre in Halifax
Rock bolts needed on ~2
metre centres.
Orientation of layering
Very few rock bolts
needed because face is at
right angle to layering.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
24
Interventions – Halifax convention centre
Layering surface dipping steeply towards viewer.
Real hazard of slope failure without rock bolts.
Bolts are set at ~2 m centres.
Orientation of layering
Slope Processes & Subsidence
25
Interventions and Mitigations
Slope Processes & Subsidence
26
Topics

Objectives and Learning Outcomes.
Types of mass movements and causes.
Environmental geology.
Interventions and hazard mitigation.
Subsidence.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
27
Subsidence

Man-made – withdraw of ground water.
Man-made – collapse of former underground mine
workings.
Natural – sink holes in limestone and gypsum.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
28
Subsidence
Slope Processes & Subsidence
29
Subsidence

Sink holes form primarily
naturally in limestone areas.
Roof collapse makes the sink
hole.
Draught or too much
groundwater withdrawal
leaves the roof unsupported.
The ‘classic’ sink hole in
Winter Park, FL.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
30
Subsidence in Oxford, NS
Early stages of subsidence
of sink hole.
Sink holes has filled with
mud and sand and enlarged.
Several weeks after first
appearance.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
31
Review
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Slope failures and subsidence are major geohazards that
are not fully recognized.
Water is a major problem with both.
Both processes may happen quickly or slowly.
Simple solutions, such as relieving water pressure and
rock bolting, work.
Be aware of water infiltrating slopes.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
32
Slope Processes and
Subsidence – ‘Unsung
Hazards’
Dr. Howard Donohoe
GEOL 1208.1, Environmental Geology
Turtle Mountain, Frank, AB. Location of largest
rock slide in Canadian history, 29 April 1903.
Mudflows Near Santa Barbara, CA

Began with severe fires in summer and fall.
Denuded hillsides.
County and state conducted risk assessment.
Intense rainstorm unleashed water, weathered rock and
soil in a slurry – dreaded mudflows.
Mudflows are secondary after non geohazards of fire and
rain.
Slope Processes & Subsidence
34
Fire
Slope Processes & Subsidence
35
Aftermath
Slope Processes & Subsidence
36
Risk Assessment
Slope Processes & Subsidence
37
Mudflows
Slope Processes & Subsidence
38
Slope Processes & Subsidence
39
Rock and Mud flows
Slope Processes & Subsidence
40
Mudflows
Slope Processes & Subsidence
41
1
Weathering and Erosion
Geology 1208.1, Environmental Geology
Class 07-2, 16 Oct 2019
Talk was prepared by Group 2 in 2015 and
modified by Dr. Howard Donohoe
Beach rocks at St. Martins, southern NB. All
of these are the products of mechanical
weathering (abrasion) and erosion.
Purpose
 To
show how weathering and erosion
operate.
 To
 To
discuss rates.
link the processes of weathering and
erosion to hazardous earth processes.
2
Learning Outcomes
by the end of Part 2, students will be able to…
3
1. Define
and describe weathering and erosion, and
chemical and mechanical weathering.
2. List
the agents of weathering and erosion.
3. Discuss
the effect of climate on rates of mechanical
and chemical weathering.
4. Apply
your knowledge of weathering and erosion,
their rates of operation, and types and characteristics
of rocks to describe how weathering and erosion
influence hazardous earth processes.
4
Definitions

Weathering: the various mechanical and
chemical processes that cause exposed
rock to decompose.
Erosion: the process by which the surface
of the earth is worn away by the action
of water, glaciers, winds, waves, etc.
5
Chemical
Weathering
Is the breakdown of rock by
chemical reactions.
6
 The
most important reactions:
 carbonation,
hydration, hydrolysis, oxidation,
and ion exchange in solution.
 Chemical
weathering changes the
composition of the rock material toward
surface minerals, such as clays.
 Water
is especially effective at introducing
chemically active agents
7
Some Minerals Weather Faster
High temperature
Low temperature
8
Agents of Chemical Weathering
1.
Organic and inorganic acids.
2.
Plants and lichens.
3.
Microbiological activity.
4.
Greatly assisted by water and warm
temperatures.
9
Mechanical
Weathering
Mechanical weathering can also be
referred to as PHYSICAL WEATHERING.
It is the non-chemical breakdown of rocks.
10
Types of Mechanical Weathering
1. Wetting
and drying.
2. Freezing
and thawing.
3. Abrasion.
4. Salt
crystallization.
5. Wedging
ice.
6. Thermal
by plants and
expansioncontraction.
11
Rates of Weathering
Granite – slow.
Marble – fast.
Cemetery in Shediac, NB.
12
Rates of
Weathering
Water
increases in
volume by 10%
at 0C.
13
What influences weathering?
Climate:
wetness,
dryness,
location
Wetness:
humidity,
rainfall
Urban:
organic
compounds
& acids, salt
14
Terrain
condition:
mountains,
valleys
15
Common
Agents of
Erosion
– the sea
– rivers
– glaciers
Keller’s fundamental Concepts
1.
Population Growth

2.
Sustainability


3.
More people live on unstable ground.
Use ingenuity and resources safety.
Risk analysis for saving money into future.
Earth as a system
 Weathering
4.
Hazardous Earth Processes

5.
and erosion are part of system.
Weathering and erosion create problems.
Scientific Knowledge and Values

Trust scientists, science, and scientific method.
16
Review
 Mechanical
17
and chemical weathering.
 Which
predominates? Depends on climate
and moisture. Temperature and moisture
control both.
 Erosion
moves material to another location for
deposition.
 Consider
weathering and erosion in terms of
Keller’s concepts.
Rivers and Flooding
Kyanna Gilks
Marianne Hartnett
Xinwei Zhao
Yik Wang Lai
Yujian Han
Purpose
To learn and understand
concepts surrounding
rivers and flooding.
Learning Outcomes
1.
Relate Keller’s
Fundamental Concepts
to Rivers and Flooding.
2.
What is a river and what
processes happen
during basic
transportation?
3.
What are primary and
secondary effects of
flooding?
4.
How does river
discharge affect
flooding?
5.
What is the role of
Government?
What is a
River?
River: A river is a large,
natural stream of flowing
water. Rivers are found on
every continent and on
nearly every kind of land.
What is Flooding?
Flood: Is a natural event or
occurrence where a piece of land (or
area) that is usually dry land,
suddenly gets submerged under
water. Some floods can occur
suddenly and recede quickly.
River Systems
● In a river system
there are four
main parts; they
are:
● Channels
● Meanders
● Levees
● Flood Plains
● A channel is a
wide strait or waterway b
etween two landmasses
that lie close to each
other. It can be the
deepest part of a
waterway, or a narrow
body of water that
connects two larger
bodies of water.
● Levees are a result of an
overbanked flows of
rivers; human
constructed levees help
protect land adjacent to
the river from flooding.
● Meanders are a
series of curves,
bends, loops, turns,
or windings in the
channel of a river,
stream, or other
watercourse.
● Flood Plains are a
flat surface that is
adjacent to a river or
stream that
experiences
occasional flooding.
What Does a
River Carry?
● A river flows downhill
and it is bringing the
sediment with it which is
called the total load.
● The total load includes:
the bed load, the
suspended load, and
the dissolved load.
● Bed load moves by
bouncing, rolling, or
skipping particles along
the bottom of a river
channel. It is made up
of sand and gravel and
is accounting less than
for 10% of the total load.
What Does a River Carry?
● Suspended load is composed of silt and clay. It is carried above
the streambed by flowing water. The suspended load accounts for
90% of the total load and it is what makes a river look muddy.
● Dissolved load is carried chemical solution and comes from
chemical weathering of minerals in rocks, sediment, and soil in the
drainage basin. The dissolved load may make the water seem like
it might taste salty if there are large amounts of sodium chloride; or
it could be “hard” water if dissolved load contains high amounts of
calcium and magnesium.
River Processes
Rivers are the basic transportation for processes such
as erosion and deposition of sediments
Erosion: wearing away the soil and rocks, this puts a
lot of sediment into the river
Deposition: is the sediment transported by the river
Erosion and the deposition of sediments can be
correlated to:




Change in channel width, depth, or slope
of a river
What the bed of a river is composed of
(rock,gravel,sand,silt, or clay)
Type and amount of vegetation
Land use,such as clearing a land for forest
The Effects of Erosion and Sediment Deposition
on Rivers




The velocity of the water in a river has different speeds at
different spots, this affects erosion and deposition of
sediments.
Rivers that flow faster erode it’s bank more than slower
moving rivers.
Streams that flow from mountains into plains are known as
alluvial fans
Rivers that flow into the ocean or some other body of still
water may deposit sediments that form a delta
● Rain
● River overflow
● Hurricanes, Strong winds
in coastal areas
● Dam breaking
Why Do
Rivers Flood?
● Ice and snow-melts
(snowmelt flood)
● Replenish groundwater
● Improves fertility
● Wetlands
● Renew fish stock
Are Floods Always
Negative?
What is River Discharge?

Discharge is the volume of water that passes through a given
cross section per unit time, usually measured in cubic feet per
second (cfs) or cubic meters per second (cms).

It (also called flow) is the critical measure of the river.
However, it is difficult to measure discharge, so the most
common way flows are reported in the media is by stage. In
the case of a flood, news reports will often say that a river is “5
feet above flood stage”. Floods and rivers also have a crest
which is often reported in relationship to flood stage as in “the
river will crest at 7 feet above flood stage tomorrow.”
What is River Discharge?
Here is a video

The Primary Effect of Flooding
Hazards associated with flooding can be divided into primary hazards.
Throughout the last century flooding has been one of the most costly
disasters in terms of both property damage and human casualties. Major
floods in China, for example, killed about 2 million people in 1887, nearly 4
million in 1931, and about 1 million in 1938 The 1993 flood on the upper
Mississippi River and Midwest killed only 47 people, but the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers estimates the total economic loss at between 15 and 20
billion dollars.
The Primary Effect of Flooding




Massive amounts of erosion can be finished by flood waters
Water entering human built structures cause water damage.
Flooding of farmland usually results in crop loss.
Humans that get caught in the high velocity flood waters are
often drowned by the water.
● Floodwaters can concentrate garbage, pieces of metal,wood,
and toxic pollutants that can cause the secondary effects of
health hazards.
The Primary Effect of Flooding
Here is the other video

How Flooding Can be a Secondary, Geological hazard?
Most hazardous process are also Geologic Processes.
What is secondary hazard?
Secondary Effects occur
only because a primary
effect has caused them.
For example, fires ignited
as a result of earthquakes,
disruption of electrical
power and water service
as a result of an
earthquake, flood, or
hurricane, or flooding
caused by a landslide into
a lake or river.
Secondary Effect of Flooding
• Short-term pollution
• Hunger
• Disease
• Fire
● The Emergency
Management Office
(EMO)
● Federal Role –
Government Operations
Centre (GOC)
The Role of Government
and Various Bylaws,
Regulations and Legislation
● Disaster Financial
Assistance Arrangements
(DFAA)
● 1950 in Southern
Manitoba – many valley
towns and about one sixth
of Winnipeg were flooded.
It was about 51 days that
the red river stayed above
the flood stage.
● 1996 in Quebec – this
disaster hit after a
massive rainfall and
caused over 1.5 billion
dollars in damage
Some of The Major
Floods in Canada
● 1997 Red River flood in
Manitoba- this is known as
the flood of the century.
The area was hit by a
blizzard and water levels
rose 12 meters above
winter levels and it caused
the province to declare a
state …
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