Instructions:Answer 10 of the 11 questions in complete sentences. Students may omit any one question. There is no extra credit for answering the 11th question. Be sure to indicate all of the relevant premise for each answer.
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Final Exam: Introduction to Philosophy
The final exam is a series of short essay questions arranged by author or theme. Students may omit any
one question of their own choosing. (There is no extra credit for answering the 11th question and I will
grade the first 10 questions I see.) Students will ultimately answer ten short essay questions worth ten
points each.
1.) Present Aristotle’s Doctrine of Mean. Students must develop at minimum two virtues to present the
point and adequately develop the necessary condition for virtue.
2.) Recount the three kinds of friendships discussed by Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics. Students
should list two characteristics or qualities of each and then state the key difference between good
(virtuous) friendship and the other two.
3.) According to Aristotle, what is the aim of political science and how does it try to achieve this end?
(Students may include an image as part of the answer but must explain and develop it in prose.)
4.) Present Anselm’s argument for the existence of God found in the Proslogion.
5.) Present two of the five ways that Aquinas argues God’s existence can be proven in the Summa
6.) Present Descartes’ proof for the existence of God found in Meditation III. (Students may present the
argument in disjunctive form as part of the answer but must also explain and develop the argument
in prose.)
7.) Explain Pascal’s Wager in prose and then defend the conclusion using the utility matrix method.
8.) According to Descartes’ Meditation I, can you be sure that you are right now taking your final exam?
Why or why not? (2 reasons) And, with respect to Meditation II, can a person be absolutely certain
about anything? Why or why not?
9.) According to Descartes’ Meditation IV, how is human error possible and what must be done to avoid
making mistakes? (Students may include an image as part of this answer, but must explain and
develop that image in prose.)
10.) In A Treatise of Human Nature, how does Hume account for the origin of ideas and how does his
account differ from Plato’s? And, what are some of the inherent limitations for language implied in
Hume’s account?
11.) How does Hume’s epistemology in A Treatise of Human Nature account for the idea of causal
necessity and how does his account affect arguments that depend upon causal logic?

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