Migration has always been part of human existence and it will continue as long as there are places to go
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Types of exploitation faced by victims of trafficking
The dynamics surrounding this modern-day form of slavery con not be overemphasized as these
victims are faced with several forms of exploitation such as forced prostitution, forced labour,
forced begging, forced criminality, domestic servitude, forced marriage, and forced organ removal.
According to a research by International Organization for Migration (2017) victims of trafficking
are forced into several forms of exploitation as shown in the graph below.
Sexual Exploitation: This arises when a person is being deceived, forced or coerced into engage
in sexual activities. We live in an age where individuals of uncontrollable sexual perversions create
a demand for sex particularly with young girls and boys, thereby leading to trafficking for sexual
exploitation in order to fulfil the demands created by perverts with money. Perpetrators of this acts
target societies with vulnerable people. Areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which include
Gambia, Liberia, Nigeria, and Ghana, and south of the Central African Republic to South Africa,
including Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe,
Swaziland, and Mozambique. These events can take place is places such as Brothels–
massage/sauna, Escort agencies, Pole/lap dancing, Stripping on a web cam, Phone sex lines,
Internet chat rooms, Pornography, Mail order brides, and Sex tourism.
Forced marriage and forced labor: These two acts are being categorized as modern slavery. According to
a study by International Labor Organization, an estimate of at least 12 million people worldwide are
trapped in conditions of forced labor and about a fifth of these are being exploited as a result of human
trafficking (ILO, 2005). Decades of neglect have prolonged the perpetration of this evil acts, but recently
public attention on the problem has increased considerably
LO, 2005 ILO, 2005. A Global Alliance against Forced Labour. ILO, Geneva.
International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2017), Exploitation type among identified victims of
human trafficking, 2005-2016. https://migrationdataportal.org/infographic/exploitation-type-amongidentified-victims-human-trafficking-2005-2016 Accessed: December 2019
Migration has always been part of human existence and it will continue as long as there are
places to go. Over the years, people have moved in all directions looking for food, conducive
environment or fleeing from war. Among several factors, migration has since been identified
by slavery, and war. Following the development of slave trade between 1500 and 1800, about
12 million Africans were enslaved and transported to the Americas in the transatlantic slave
trade. By 1850, the extent of slave trade had increased in South America and the Caribbean
such that 4.5 million slaves had been transported to Brazil (Lovejoy, 1982). Prior to the
nineteenth century, the major forms of transnational migration was forced.
Also after the World War II in 1945, several Holocaust survivors feared to return to their homes
because of the hatred of Jews that took place in some parts of Europe. This led the survivors to
migrate to Western Europe, the United States and the territory of British-Mandate Palestine
that later became Israel (Holocaust Encyclopaedia). The slave trade and the World War show
a trend of migration that has contributed to the spread of people across the globe.
According to the International Migration report, the number of international migrants
worldwide has increased in recent years, from 220 million in 2010 to 258 million in 2017. This
depicts an increase in the number of people migrating from their homes in search for quality
life, jobs and education. Nevertheless, people affected by natural disaster, poverty, political
instability are also forced to leave their homes to search for a better life in Europe. A 2018
World Bank report predicted that over 143 million people may soon become climate migrants,
because of droughts, lack of water and flood.
Migration dynamics has evolved in the last few years as migrants resolve to consider desperate
moves such as crossing the Mediterranean Sea to Europe or involve smugglers that help with
illegal entry into their choice of country. In October 2013, International Organization for
Migration (IOM) recorded the death of 368 migrants in sinking boats near the Italian Island
Lampedusa. Also, people migrating in search of jobs or quality life become victims of human
trafficking.
Human trafficking is described as the act of exploiting human beings, mostly vulnerable
people and it is identified as a major abuse of human rights today (Stephanie, 2013). Trafficking
in persons is a practice of modern slavery and is believed to be one of the fastest growing
criminal networks in the world because millions of people end up as victims. Due to the
rampant issues of corruption, most persons trafficked rarely report their cases and this has made
it challenging to get the accurate data for trafficked victims (Todres, 2011). It is important to
note that every country in the world play a part in trafficking as either a country of source,
destination or transit or a combination of the three.
According to United Nations records, the major destination countries in Europe for sexual
exploitation and forced labor are Italy and United states. Another research also indicate Nigeria
as a destination in Africa for Ghana, Togo, Benin and Cameroon in child trafficking (Eye on
Human Trafficking, 2005). The International Organization of Migration (IOM) came up with
an evaluation that between 700,000 and 2,000,000,000 females both children and adults are
trafficked across international borders per year and are victims of various forms of trafficking
(IOM 2011). At the same time, the international Labour Organization stated that twenty- two
percent of human trafficking victims are listed as victims of forced sexual exploitation
(International Labour Organization, 2012).
The increased number of women trafficked put forward that they are probably being trafficked
for sexual exploitation such as child pornography and forced prostitution. This is because sex
trafficking is described as the most profitable form of human trafficking and women are more
at risk to this act. In many instances, most people that are searching for job opportunities have
ended up in commercial sexual services (Siskin and Wyler, 2012). On the other hand,
trafficking of human beings can be voluntarily and it occurs when an individual chooses to
migrate illegally which is referred to as smuggling.
The United Nations described the way in which transnational crime occurs in three
components; recruitment, transportation and exploitation (UNODC 2000). Recruitment is the
primary stage of the process which can be executed by either the family members of the
victims, by an advert on the internet, newspaper and other social media platforms (Oringanje
2014). Victims are usually recruited from Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and the
Commonwealth of Independent States. In the transportation phase, they move across borders
and also within the victim’s country (Zimmerman et al 2011). The places they migrate to
include; the CIS, Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe.
In the destination stage the trafficked persons engage in labor or service based on the situation
in which they are trafficked for. Countries recognized by the UNODC as destination area for
trafficked victim are frequently the developed countries and the most well-known destination
countries are the United States, Turkey, Germany, Japan, Italy, Greece and Thailand (Oringanje
2014). The United States is said to have one of the biggest pornography companies in the world
(Flowers 2001) while in Italy, Netherlands and Germany sexual acts for money is legal
(Oringanje 2014). On the contrary, countries that are source of trafficking are most times the
developing countries. Nigeria for instance, is a country of source extremely influenced by sex
trafficking and the condition has turn out to be a main topic for the society.
Recently, sex trafficking has emerged as a form of modern slavery, which perhaps makes it an
extreme violation of children and women currently. To recognize the frequency of sex
trafficking as a form of human trafficking, it is essential to analyze the factors that cause human
trafficking. The main cause of sex trafficking are usually economic or social problems and
several reasons that can be a push or pull factor.
Pull and Push Factors:

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