InstructionsBody of Research PaperFollow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs draft assignment for Unit VI. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to continue drafting your academic argumentative research paper.Description: In this assignment, you will write three to four body paragraphs according to the form that is explained in “Lesson 3: The Body Paragraphs.” The following requirements must be included in the assignment:Body Paragraphs: You will construct three to four paragraphs comprised of five to seven sentences each. Each paragraph should be between 150-200 words. At a minimum, this portion of the paper should be around 450-600 words (for three to four paragraphs); a body section of this length will meet the minimum requirements of the assignment. The following components must be included in each body paragraph (in the following order).Sentence 1: Point/reason sentence: This topic sentence will contain one of your reasons.Sentence 2: Explanation: In this sentence, you provide information that further develops or explains Sentence 1.Sentence 3: Illustration: This sentence introduces evidence that supports the reason that is presented in Sentence 1.Sentence 4: Explanation of the illustration: Because the evidence does not necessarily stand on its own, you need to provide explanation so that the reader will understand how you interpreted the evidence to come to your reason.Sentences 5-6: Second illustration and explanation (optional): You may choose to include a second piece of evidence that is then followed by an explanation.Last Sentence: Transition: In this sentence, you will signal to the reader that you will be moving on to another point in the next paragraph. You do this to ease the movement from one point to another.Be sure to include the introduction and literature review you have already created and revised.Use APA conventions to cite and reference all sources used to support your argument.Example: Click here to access an example paper with body paragraphs. This is a real student example. It is not a perfect example for all grammar, syntax, or APA, though it is in very good shape. The goal of viewing this example should be to see the overall structure and content.
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Running head: SAVE THE BEES
1
[Unit VI and VII, Body Section: You will find the body paragraphs on pp. 7–9, located in
the blue outlined section. The body section should be placed in the paper after the
Introduction and Literature Review.]
Save the Bees: The Negative Effects of Neonicotinoids on Bee Populations
Tamika Diggs
Columbia Southern University
SAVE THE BEES
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Save the Bees: The Negative Effects of Pesticides on Bee Populations
The argument concerning whether a ban should be placed on pesticides has been a source
of contention since the publishing of Rachel Carson’s groundbreaking book Silent Spring in
1962. In her book, Carson (1962) highlights the dangers of pesticide use by describing the effects
of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on birds of prey including peregrine falcons, osprey,
and bald eagles. DDT has since been banned, but many pesticides are still being used today.
Proponents for banning pesticides acknowledge that while they may present a short-term solution
to issues such as insect infestations, the long-term effects of pesticide exposure cannot be
ignored. On the other hand, those in favor of pesticide use argue that the benefits often outweigh
the risks, as pesticides are responsible for maximizing crop yields while also reducing the risk of
disease in humans and livestock. Within the last 20 years, beekeepers have begun to witness
record losses in their bee populations. The phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder
(CCD), and beekeepers affected by CCD have reported losses as high as 50–90%, sometimes
within a matter of weeks (Ellis, 2016). Research has pointed to pesticide usage, specifically
neonicotinoids (neonics), as a potential cause of CCD. According to research, neonicotinoids are
used in agriculture to kill pests such as aphids and grubs, but are indirectly impacting bees
(“What are Neonicotinoids?” 2017). Bees are responsible for pollinating most of the world’s
crops, therefore many are advocating for the ban of neonics. However, the opposing side argues
that the research naming neonics as the culprit of sudden bee deaths is weak, and that neonics are
safe for use. Also, government entities like The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are
concerned about the negative impact a pesticide ban would have on disease control. In addition,
the economic impact on farmers due to a loss in crop yields resulting from a pesticide ban would
be costly. While there would be an initial cost to explore alternative methods, continuing to
SAVE THE BEES
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expose key pollinators to harmful pesticides should not continue. Therefore, neonicotinoids
should not be used due to their harmful effects on bees. Instead, alternatives such as Integrated
Pest Management (IPM), should be utilized.
Review of Literature
In order to better understand the controversy concerning neonicotinoid use and its effects
on bee populations, it is necessary to review the origins of pesticide usage. In addition, this
review will closely examine pollination and the role of the bee in that process. The review will
continue by more closely examining the phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder
(CDD) and its potential impact on the environment. Finally, the literature review will explore the
opposing sides of the controversy surrounding neonicotinoid use, beginning with arguments in
favor of banning its use and favoring alternative methods such as Integrated Pest Management
(IPM). Then, the position of those against the banning of neonicotinoids, or the con side.
The Origins of Pesticides
The concerns surrounding chemical pesticide use have been discussed for several
decades. According to the article “Pesticides” (2007), it was the discovery of dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the 1930s that allowed modern agriculture to grow into what it is today.
At that time, DDT was cheap to manufacture and known only to be toxic to insects. Therefore,
DDT was used to eliminate insects from crops, to delouse prisoners and military personnel, and
to control mosquitos (Zoltan, 2011). Within a few decades, scientists began to observe a decline
in many species of carnivorous birds. Research lead them to the presence of concentrated DDT
in the food chain, which indirectly impacted the reproductive cycles of birds of prey
(“Pesticides,” 2007). Due to this discovery, various government entities have stepped in and
imposed regulations to either ban them, in the case of DDT, or control their usage (“Assessing
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Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides,” 2013). In spite of the recognized
hazardous effects of these chemicals, many pesticides are still being used today.
Pollination and Colony Collapse Disorder
Pollination is the process of sexual reproduction for all higher plant forms including
flowers, herbs, bushes, grass, and most trees (“Pollination,” 2017). Specifically, pollination is the
process of moving pollen (male sex cells) to the pistil (female reproductive organ) of a plant of
the same species to form a seed in which a new plant will grow (“Pollination,” 2017). Pollination
occurs by either abiotic means, such as by air or water, or through biotic means by being
transferred with the assistance of another organism. Bees are considered to be the most effective
biotic pollinator and, therefore, are critical to the process of pollination. This is due to the species
social nature, large demand for food, and its ability to remember specific plants (“Pollination,”
2017). It has been estimated that “of the 100 crops responsible for producing the majority of the
earth’s food, 71 of them are pollinated by bees” (Ellis, 2016). Therefore, the bee is considered a
key pollinator and is integral to the process of pollination. Within the last 20 years, beekeepers
have noticed a dramatic reduction in the population of bees in their hives. Scientists have named
this phenomenon “Colony Collapse Disorder,” also known as CCD. Colony Collapse Disorder is
when a colony of bees abandons their hive while leaving their brood, or larvae, behind (“What’s
New with Honeybees?” 2009). The rapid decline of bee populations due to CCD places a threat
on the process of pollination and the success of many of the world’s crops.
The Argument in Favor of Pesticide Use
Those against the banning of pesticides base their reasoning on economics and public
health concerns. According to the EPA (n.d.-a), there are too many significant health problems
that are caused by pests to completely discontinue use of pesticides. Some examples of these
SAVE THE BEES
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public health concerns include asthma and allergies, Avian Flu, and vector-borne illnesses such
as West Nile Virus (EPA, n.d.-a). A paper published by Whitford et al. (2006)from Purdue also
presents strong examples that support the argument for pesticide usage. Pesticides are utilized in
many advantageous ways that often go unnoticed by the public. For example, pesticides are used
to control vegetation along highways to allow for visibility and safe passage, and are also
incorporated into many household products such as paints and caulks to prevent the growth of
mold in our homes (Whitford et al., 2006). Concerning CCD, proponents of pesticide use say
that there is not enough research currently available to determine that pesticides are the sole
cause of CCD. Research concerning the sudden decline in bee populations have pointed at a
combination of factors that result in CCD, including habitat loss, global warming, and parasites
such as the Varroa mite (Kaplan, 2012). Ultimately, those who support the use of pesticides
argue that the benefits outweigh the risks. There are concerns that a complete ban of pesticides
would present a threat to public health. Without pesticides to protect our crops and livestock,
there would be a reduction in crop yields which would lead to increased famine. In addition,
humans would be exposed to more diseases transmitted by insects that would have otherwise
been eradicated through the use of pesticides.
The Case Against Pesticides
When pesticides are used, many species that may not be the intended target are often
affected (National Research Council, 2013). This was the case with DDT and birds of prey, and
is also the case with neonicotinoids (neonics) and honey bees. Contrary to the studies backed by
pesticide supporters, opposing research has linked the cause of CCD to the use of neonics.
Neonics are toxic to bees and have the ability to alter their behavior, ultimately making it
difficult for them to find food (Hopwood et al., 2016). In place of pesticides, parties including
SAVE THE BEES
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beekeepers and environmentalists are asking that alternative pest management systems be
utilized. Integrated Pest Management or (IPM) is the idea of providing the best level of pest
management without negatively impacting human health or the environment (“Integrated Pest
Management,” 2011). It is believed that using environmentally-friendly alternatives to pesticides
such as IPM will protect keystone species and pose less harm to the ecosystem.
While the debate on the use of pesticides is ongoing, it is clear that both sides have
concerns surrounding public health. Those for the continued use of neonicotinoids believe (a)
that they are the most effective way to kill pests that damage crops and cause disease, and (b) are
monetarily invested in the increased crop production afforded through their continued usage. For
those calling for a ban on neonics, the projected outcome of the extinction of beneficial species
such as the honey bee is of higher concern. In an effort to reach a middle ground, they propose
that alternative pest management systems be utilized. By using alternatives methods such as
IPM in place of neonicotinoids, the risks of indirectly harming beneficial species and the
ecosystem dramatically decreases. Therefore, the use of neonics should be banned and
alternative pest management systems should be implemented.
Save the Bees: My Argument against the Use of Neonicotinoids
Continuing to allow the use of neonicotinoids will have sublethal effects on non-target
species. While some pesticides are applied to the surface of a plant, neonics work systemically
by effecting all parts of the plant, including the pollen and nectar, with most seeds treated with
the pesticide prior to planting (Goulson, 2013). With neonicotinoids being present in the pollen
and nectar of treated plants, bees and other pollinators such as moths and butterflies are
continuously exposed to the toxin each time they feed (Bonmatin et al., 2014). While an initial
exposure may not be directly threatening, small doses over an entire lifespan compounds the
SAVE THE BEES
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dangers to any given species. According to research by Hopwood et al. (2016), when bees are
exposed to neonicotinoids it can affect their ability to forage and return home to their hives.
When a bee cannot return home, it cannot bring food back to the colony, resulting in a colony
collapse, or CCD. As a key pollinator responsible for pollinating the majority of the world’s
crops, the implications of a mass die-off of bees would have a drastic effect on the food chain
(Ellis, 2016). While neonics often impact unintended species, they also have equally negative
effects on the ecosystem.
Not only are neonics detrimental to beneficial species such as the bee, but they also have
negative effects on the entire ecosystem due to their tendency to accumulate in soils and
contaminate water sources. Neonicotinoid use by seed treatment first became popular because it
was thought that it would have less of an environmental impact than use by spray contact
(Hopwood et al., 2016). However, research by Dave Goulson (2013) has shown that the majority
of the active ingredient in neonics persists in the soil, with the half-life lasting for as long as
1,000 days, and can even accumulate if used repeatedly. This persistence in the soil concentrates
the amount of toxin, making it more harmful to the environment. Neonicotinoids are also water
soluble, having the ability to move freely through the soil into surface water and, in some cases,
groundwater (Goulson, 2013). This water solubility and soil persistence exposes multiple
organisms to the toxin, and even allows for the uptake of the pesticide in unintended plants.
Rather than continue to expose non-target species and the environment to toxic neonics, it would
be more beneficial to utilize alternative pest management systems.
Alternative methods to pesticide use, such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM), provide
a safer, more environmentally friendly approach to pest management. The main principle of IPM
is to provide the best possible pest control without causing damage to human health and the
SAVE THE BEES
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environment (“Integrated Pest Management,” 2011). An issue with neonicotinoids is that the
seeds are often dressed with the pesticide as a prophylactic when the targeted pest may not be
present in the area where the seed is being planted (Hopwood et al., 2016). This type of
preventative usage causes needless exposure of non-target plants and animals to the pesticide.
IPM incorporates several methods in an effort to reduce pests, starting with identifying the
specific pest that is causing damage rather than chemically treating for the incorrect pest, or a
pest that may not be present. Another strategy of IPM is prevention by eliminating the habitat,
food sources, and shelter that attract the pest (EPA, n.d.-b). Managing pests by accurate
identification and prevention methods negate the need for chemicals which reduces the exposure
to the environment.
SAVE THE BEES
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References
Bonmatin, J. M., Giorio, C., Girolami, V., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D. P., Krupke, C., …
Tapparo, A. (2015). Environmental fate and exposure: Neonicotinoids and fipronil.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 22(1), 35–67. Retrieved
from http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3332-7
Ellis, J. (2016). Colony collapse disorder (CCD) in honey bees. Retrieved from
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in720
Goulson, D. (2016). Review: An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid
insecticides. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(4), 977–987. Retrieved from
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12111/full
Hopwood, J., Code, A., Vaughn, M., Biddinger, D., Shepherd, M., Black, S. H., . . . Mazzacano,
C. (2016). How neonicotinoids can kill bees: The science behind the role these
insecticides play in harming bees (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for
Invertebrate Conservation.
Integrated pest management. (2011). In D. S. Blanchfield (Ed.), Environmental encyclopedia.
Detroit, MI: Gale.
Kaplan, J. K. (2012). Colony collapse disorder: An incomplete puzzle. Agricultural Research,
60(6), 4.
National Research Council. (2013). Assessing risks to endangered and threatened species from
pesticides. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Pesticides. (2007). In World of biology. Retrieved from Gale Group.
Pollination. (2011). In D. S. Blanchfield (Ed.), Environmental encyclopedia. Detroit, MI: Gale.
SAVE THE BEES
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Sarich, C. (2013, August 15). List of foods we will lose if we don’t save the bees. Retrieved from
https://honeylove.org/list-of-food/
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.-a). Introduction to integrated pest management.
Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/managing-pests-schools/introduction-integratedpest-management
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.-b). Why we use pesticides. Retrieved from
https://www.epa.gov/safepestcontrol/why-we-use-pesticides
What are neonicotinoids? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pan-uk.org/about_neonicotinoids/
What’s new with honeybees? (2009). BioScience, 59(11), 1010.
Whitford, F., Pike, D., Hanger, G., Burroughs, F., Johnson, B., & Blessing, A. (2006). The
benefits of pesticides: A story worth telling. Purdue Extension, 70.
Zoltan, M. B. (2011). Pesticides and pesticide residue. In B. W. Lerner & K. L. Lerner (Eds.), In
context series. Food: In context (Vol. 2, pp. 630–633). Detroit, MI: Gale.
Running head: REPORTING SEXUAL ASSAULT IN THE MILITARY
Reporting Sexual Assault in the Military
Name
Course
Date
1
REPORTING SEXUAL ASSAULT IN THE MILITARY
2
Introduction
Sexual assault remains one of the major issues affecting those serving the military,
especially due to the nature of their work. Aware of this, the military has put in place elaborate
measures to ensure that those who are assaulted sexually get to report such incidences. Despite
this, a majority of them go unreported due to fear of retaliation by their colleagues. This makes
this an important topic for discussion both within and outside the military not only to protect the
image of the forces but also to ensure those serving get to work in a safe environment. The
ability of military officers being able to report cases of sexual assault without being subjected to
retaliation or any other intimidation should remain a priority for all in the force. While there are
instances where individuals have used sexual assault claims to damage the reputation of others or
to hurt them, there is a need for the military to provide a framework and avenues for those
affected by the practice to report such cases openly and without being affected or their position
being affected. Sexual assault can take different forms, and ensuring that one understands the
different types of such assaults is important for purposes of reporting and ensuring that the
practice is eliminated within the military.
Sexual can take the form of rape, unwanted sexual contact, or any other form of attack
which is sexual in nature and which the person affected does not consent to. While sexual assault
remains riffle within the military, many of these cases go unreported. This makes a priority for
the military to come up with ways in which those affected by sexual assault without fear. The
restrictions against reporting the sexual assault within the military is also another major barrier
towards eradicating the problem. Similar to the civilian system, most military personnel who
have been sexually assaulted feel that sexual offenders, especially men within the military, are
often not held accountable for their actions. However, recent years have witnessed increased
REPORTING SEXUAL ASSAULT IN THE MILITARY
3
attention to the issue of sexual assault within the military. While a military officer who
experiences sexual assault can make a restricted or unrestricted report, the majority of these
cases are never acted upon as deserved. As a result of the high prevalence of sexual assault in the
military, there is a need for more efforts to be put towards eradicating the vice.
Literature Review
In defining sexual assault, Kimerling (2017) note that this can take different forms and
includes rape, attempted rape, unconsented touches, or other forms of sexual attack, which are
unconsented. In the United States military, sexual assault remains a major concern, especially
among women with existing reports indicating that a number of them had been sexually
assaulted. In discussing the prevalence of sexual assault in the military, Kimerling (2017) note
that there is a high likelihood for a female military officer to be sexually assaulted by a male
colleague that it is to die in battle. On average, about 25% of women and 2% of men have
reported having been sexually assaulted in one or more ways (Goewert, 2016). Despite the high
prevalence of a culture of sexual assault in the military, a majority of these cases go unreported
to various factors associated with the nature of work. As in the civilian population, Kimerling
(2017) note that fear, embarrassment, shame, and the restrictive nature of military work makes it
hard for a majority of those affected to report such cases.
The fact that many cases o …
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