INSTRUCTIONSIn the Sacred Texts booklet, you will find three Confucian texts and three Shinto texts.For each of the religious systems:Select one of the texts and explain why you have chosen it as most representative of the religious system;Address the reasons why the other two readings were not, in your assessment, as representative. You MAY NOT use outside sources to make your case. Limit yourself to the text itself, your lecture notes and your textbook.Answer the questions found on the Answer Sheet.Formulate reflective essay responses and use textual citations to defend your assertions.Do not summarize unless necessary to make a point. (I have read these texts…many times.)FORMATTINGCalibri 11pt; double-spacing; 2 ENTIRE pages (minimum and maximum) with bibliography on a third page.attached is sacred text and answer sheet
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Name:
CONFUCIANISM
1.
2.
SHINTO
1.
2.
Sacred
Texts
Hinduism
Song of the Sacred tremor
i
The venerated Shakti, source of energy,
opens her eyes and the universe is reabsorbed in pure
consciousness; she closes them and the universe is
manifested within her.
ii
iii
The sacred tremor, the very place of creation and
return, is completely limitless because its nature is formless.
Even within duality, the tantrika goes straight to the
nondual source, because pure subjectivity always
resides immersed within its own nature.
iv
All the relative notions tied to the ego rediscover their
peaceful source deeply buried under all the different states.
v
In the absolute sense, pleasure and suffering, subject
and object, are nothing other than the space of
profound consciousness.
vi + vii
To grasp this fundamental truth is to see absolute freedom
everywhere. Thus, the activity of the senses itself dwells in this
fundamental freedom and pours forth from it.
viii
Therefore, the person who rediscovers this
essential sacred tremor of consciousness escapes the dim
confusion of limited desire.
ix
Liberated in this way from the multiplicity of impulses tied to
the ego, he experiences the supreme state.
Kashmiri Shaivite text said to have been transmitted to the sage Vaṣugupta by Shiva himself on Mount Kailaṣ.
The ramayana
The aged king for Ráma pined,
And for the skies the earth resigned.
Bharat, his son, refused to reign,
Though urged by all the twice-born29 train.
Forth to the woods he fared to meet
His brother, fell before his feet,
And cried, “Thy claim all men allow:
O come, our lord and king be thou.”
But Ráma nobly chose to be
Observant of his sire’s decree.
He placed his sandals30 in his hand
A pledge that he would rule the land:
And bade his brother turn again.
Then Bharat, finding prayer was vain,
The sandals took and went away;
Nor in Ayodhyá would he stay.
But turned to Nandigráma, where
He ruled the realm with watchful care,
Still longing eagerly to learn
Tidings of Ráma’s safe return.
Excerpt from Book I, Canto I
THE BHAGAVAD-GITA
Arjuna said:
1By the supremely profound words, on the discrimination of Self, that have been spoken by Thee out of compassion towards me,
this my delusion is gone. 2Of Thee, O lotus-eyed, I have heard at length, of the origin and dissolution of beings, as also Thy
inexhaustible greatness. 3So it is, O Lord Supreme! as Thou hast declared Thyself. (Still) I desire to see Thy Ishvara-Form, O Purusha
Supreme. 4If, O Lord, Thou thinkest me capable of seeing it, then, O Lord of Yogis, show me Thy immutable Self.
The Blessed Lord said:
5Behold, O son of Prithâ, by hundreds and thousands, My different forms celestial, of various colours and shapes. 6Behold the
Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the twin Ashvins, and the Maruts; behold, O descendant of Bharata, many wonders never seen
before. 7See now, O Gudâkesha, in this My body, the whole universe centred in one—including the moving and the unmoving—and
all else that thou desirest to see. 8But thou canst not see Me with these eyes of thine; I give thee supersensuous sight; behold My
Yoga Power Supreme.
Sanjaya said:
9Having thus spoken, O King, Hari, the Great Lord of Yoga, showed unto the son of Prithâ, His Supreme Ishvara-Form—10With
numerous mouths and eyes, with numerous wondrous sights, with numerous celestial ornaments, with numerous celestial weapons
uplifted; 11Wearing celestial garlands and apparel, anointed with celestial-scented unguents, the All-wonderful, Resplendent,
Boundless and All-formed. 12If the splendour of a thousand suns were to rise up at once in the sky, that would be like the splendour
of that Mighty Being. 13There in the body of the Kami of gods, the son of Pându then saw the whole universe resting in one, with its
manifold divisions. 14Then Dhananjaya, filled with wonder, with his hair standing on end, bending down his head to the Deva in
adoration, spoke with joined palms.
Arjuna said:
15I see all the Devas, O Deva, in Thy body, and hosts of all grades of beings; Brahma, the Lord, seated on the lotus, and all the Rishis
and celestial serpents. 16I see Thee of boundless form on every side with manifold arms, stomachs, mouths and eyes; neither the
end nor the middle, nor also the beginning of Thee do I see, O Lord of the universe, O Universal Form. 17I see Thee with diadem,
club, and discus; a mass of radiance shining everywhere, very hard to look at, all around blazing like burning fire and sun, and
immeasurable. 18Thou art the Imperishable, the Supreme Being, the one thing to be known. Thou art the great Refuge of this
universe. Thou art the undying Guardian of the Eternal Dharma, Thou art the Ancient, Purusha, I ween. 19I see Thee without
beginning, middle or end, infinite in power, of manifold arms; the sun and the moon Thine eyes, the burning fire Thy mouth; heating
the whole universe with Thy radiance. 20The space betwixt heaven and earth and all the quarters are filled by Thee alone; having
seen this, Thy marvellous and awful Form, the three worlds are trembling with fear, O Great-souled One. 21Verily, into Thee enter
these hosts of Devas; some extol Thee in fear with joined palms; “May it be well!” thus saying, bands of great Rishis and Siddhas
praise Thee with splendid hymns. 22The Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Sâdhyas, Vishva-Devas, the two Ashvins, Maruts, Ushmapâs, and
hosts of Gandharvas, Yakshas, Asuras, and Siddhas—allthese are looking at Thee, all quite astounded. 23Having seen Thy
immeasurable Form—with many mouths and eyes, O mighty-armed, with many arms, thighs and feet, with many stomachs, and
fearful with many tusks—the worlds are terrified, and so am I. 24On seeing Thee touching the sky, shining in many a colour, with
mouths wide open, with large fiery eyes, I am terrified at heart, and find no courage nor peace, O Vishnu. 25Having seen Thy mouths,
fearful with tusks, (blazing) like Pralaya-fires, I know not the four quarters, nor do I find peace; have mercy, O Lord of the Devas, O
Abode of the universe. 26All these sons of Dhritarâshtra, with hosts of monarchs, Bhishma, Drona, and Sutaputra, with the warrior
chiefs of ours, enter precipitately into Thy mouth, terrible with tusks and fearful to behold. 27Some are found sticking in the
interstices of Thy teeth, with their heads crushed to powder. 28Verily, as the many torrents of rivers flow towards the ocean, so do
these heroes in the world of men enter Thy fiercely flaming mouths.29As moths precipitately rush into a blazing fire only to perish,
even so do these creatures also precipitately rush into Thy mouths only to perish. 30Swallowing all the worlds on every side with Thy
flaming mouths, Thou are licking Thy lips. Thy fierce rays, filling the whole world with radiance, are burning, O Vishnu! 31Tell me who
Thou art, fierce in form. Salutation to Thee, O Deva Supreme; have mercy. I desire to know Thee, O Primeval One. I know not indeed
Thy purpose.
The Blessed Lord said:
32I am the mighty world-destroying Time, here made manifest for the purpose of infolding the world. Even without thee, none of the
warriors arrayed in the hostile armies shall live. 33Therefore do thou arise and acquire fame. Conquer the enemies, and enjoy the
unrivalled dominion. Verily by Myself have they been already slain; be thou merely an apparent cause, O Savyasâchin (Arjuna).
34Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna, as well as other brave warriors—these already killed by Me, do thou kill. Be not distressed with
fear; fight, and thou shalt conquer thy enemies in battle.
Sanjaya said:
35Having, heard that speech of Keshava, the diademed one (Arjuna), with joined palms, trembling, prostrated himself, and again
addressed Krishna in a choked voice, bowing down, overwhelmed with fear.
Arjuna said:
36It is meet, O Hrishikesha, that the world is delighted and rejoices in Thy praise, that Râkshasas fly in fear to all quarters and all the
hosts of Siddhas bow down to Thee in adoration. 37And why should they not, O Great-souled One, bow to Thee, greater than, and
the Primal Cause of even Brahmâ, O Infinite Being, O Lord of the Devas, O Abode of the universe? Thou art the Imperishable, the
Being and the non-Being, (as well as) That which is Beyond (them). 38Thou art the Primal Deva, the Ancient Purusha; Thou art the
Supreme Refuge of this universe, Thou art the Knower, and the One Thing to be known; Thou art the Supreme Goal. By Thee is the
universe pervaded, O Boundless Form. 39Thou art Vâyu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, the Moon, Prajâpati, and the Great-Grandfather.
Salutation, salutation to Thee, a thousand times, and again and again salutation, salutation to Thee! 40Salutation to Thee before and
behind, salutation to Thee on every side, O All! Thou, infinite in power and infinite in prowess, pervadest all; wherefore Thou art All.
41Whatever I have presumptuously said from carelessness or love, addressing Thee as, “O Krishna, O Yâdava, O friend,” regarding
Thee merely as a friend, unconscious of this Thy greatness—42in whatever way I may have been disrespectful to Thee in fun, while
walking, reposing, sitting, or at meals, when alone (with Thee), O Achyuta, or in company—I implore Thee, Immeasurable One, to
forgive all this. 43Thou art the Father of the world, moving and unmoving; the object of its worship; greater than the great. None
there exists who is equal to Thee in the three worlds; who then can excel Thee, O, Thou of power incomparable? 44So prostrating my
body in adoration, I crave Thy forgiveness, Lord adorable! As a father forgiveth his son, friend a dear friend, a beloved one his love,
even so shouldst Thou forgive me, O Deva. 45Overjoyed am I to have seen what I saw never before; yet my mind is distracted with
terror. Show me, O Deva, only that Form of Thine. Have mercy, O Lord of Devas, O Abode of the universe. 46Diademed, bearing a
mace and a discus, Thee I desire to see as before. Assume that same four-armed Form, O Thou of thousand arms, of universal Form.
The Blessed Lord said:
47Graciously have I shown to thee, O Arjuna, this Form supreme, by My own Yoga power, this resplendent, primeval, infinite,
universal Form of Mine, which hath not been seen before by anyone else. 48Neither by the study of the Veda and Yajna, nor by gifts,
nor by rituals, nor by severe austerities, am I in such Form seen, in the world of men, by any other than thee, O great hero of the
Kurus. 49Be not afraid nor bewildered, having beheld this Form of Mine, so terrific. With thy fears dispelled and with gladdened
heart, now see again this (former) form of Mine.
Sanjaya said:
50So Vâsudeva, having thus spoken to Arjuna, showed again His own Form and the Great-souled One, assuming His gentle Form,
pacified him who was terrified.
Arjuna said:
51Having seen this Thy gentle human Form, O Janârdana, my thoughts are now composed and I am restored to my nature.
The Blessed Lord said:
52Very hard indeed it is to see this Form of Mine which thou hast seen. Even the Devas ever long to behold this Form. 53Neither by
the Vedas, nor by austerity, nor by gifts, nor by sacrifice can I be seen as thou hast seen Me. 54But by the single-minded devotion I
may in this Form, be known, O Arjuna, and seen in reality, and also entered into, O scorcher of foes. 55He who does work for Me
alone and has Me for his goal, is devoted to Me, is freed from attachment, and bears enmity towards no creature—he entereth into
Me, O Pândava.
Excerpt from The Bhagavad-Gita: The Mahabarata, Book VI, Chapter XI
FIRST READING
SECOND READING
Song of the Sacred Tremor
Title: Yoga Spandakarika;
Author: Daniel Odier;
Translator: Clare Frock;
Publisher: Inner Traditions;
Location: Vermont;
Year: 2004;
Page(s): 5-6.
Excerpt from The Ramayana
Book I, Canto I
Title: The Rámáyan of Válmíki;
Translator: Ralph T. H. Griffith;
Publisher: E. J. Lazarus and Co.;
Location: London;
Year: 1874;
Page(s): 5.
THIRD READING
The Bhagavad-Gita
The Mahabarata, Book VI, Chapter X
Title: Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita;
Translator: Swami Swarupananda;
Publisher: Advaita Ashrama;
Location: Kolkata;
Year: 1967;
Page(s): 241-274.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (For Chicago Manual of Style citations and bibliography)
I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Vārāṇasī in the Deer Park at Isipatana. There he addressed the
group of five monks:
“Form, monks, is not self. If form were the self, this form would not lend itself to dis-ease. It would be possible (to say) with regard
to form, ‘Let my form be thus. Let my form not be thus.’ But precisely because form is not self, this form lends itself to dis-ease. And
it is not possible (to say) with regard to form, ‘Let my form be thus. Let my form not be thus.’
“Feeling is not self…
“Perception is not self…
“Fabrications are not self…
“Consciousness is not self. If consciousness were the self, this consciousness would not lend itself to dis-ease. It would be possible
(to say) with regard to consciousness, ‘Let my consciousness be thus. Let my consciousness not be thus.’ But precisely because
consciousness is not self, consciousness lends itself to dis-ease. And it is not possible (to say) with regard to consciousness, ‘Let my
consciousness be thus. Let my consciousness not be thus.’
“What do you think, monks? Is form constant or inconstant?”
“Inconstant, lord.”
“And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?”
“Stressful, lord.”
“And is it fitting to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to change as: ‘This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am’?”
“No, lord.”
“…Is feeling constant or inconstant?” — “Inconstant, lord.” …
“…Is perception constant or inconstant?” — “Inconstant, lord.” …
“…Are fabrications constant or inconstant?” — “Inconstant, lord.” …
“What do you think, monks? Is consciousness constant or inconstant?”
“Inconstant, lord.”
“And is that which is inconstant easeful or stressful?”
“Stressful, lord.”
“And is it fitting to regard what is inconstant, stressful, subject to change as: ‘This is mine. This is my self. This is what I am’?”
“No, lord.”
“Thus, monks, any form whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far
or near: Every form is to be seen with right discernment as it has come to be:
‘This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.’
“Any feeling whatsoever…
“Any perception whatsoever…
“Any fabrications whatsoever…
“Any consciousness whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or
near: Every consciousness is to be seen with right discernment as it has come to be: ‘This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not
what I am.’
“Seeing thus, the instructed disciple of the noble ones grows disenchanted with form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with
perception, disenchanted with fabrications, disenchanted with consciousness. Disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through
dispassion, he is released. With release, there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the
task done. There is nothing further for this world.’”
That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the group of five monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words. And while this
explanation was being given, the minds of the group of five monks, through lack of clinging/sustenance, were released from
effluents.
22:59
Once upon a time, when the Lord Buddha was still a bodhisattva, was the king of Koshala. Beloved by all his subjects, the king
possessed many good virtues. However, one quality surpassed all others: his talent for gaining prosperity.
While in a deep sleep one night, the king came to recall one of his previous lives and was deeply moved. He then began to
mysteriously repeat to his subjects that all the prosperity of their kingdom was produced by “a small portion of gruel.” Although
intrigued, nobody in the kingdom understood what he meant, and none had the courage to ask. He continued to repeat this, and
the curiosity of his people continued to grow until one day while in front of a grand assembly, the queen beseeched him to explain
himself.
He stated that he had recalled a past life in which he had been a poor servant. He remembered working hard, barely being able to
support his family, and becoming entangled in feelings of contempt and sorrow. Yet when he came upon a travelling group of
monks, he invited them into his home and offered them all he had, which was just a small portion of gruel. It was because of this
one small act that he was reborn a great king. He proclaimed that no act of kindness is small if given from the heart.
Having witnessed the wonderful results of generosity, the people of Koshala also developed a high regard for meritorious action.
The prosperity of the kingdom continued to flourish even greater than before.
III
Through the power of my wisdom
I know the nature and desires of living beings
and through expedient means I preach these doctrines,
causing all living beings to attain joy and gladness.
Shariputra, you should understand
that I view things through the Buddha eye,
I see the living beings in the six paths,
how poor and distressed they are,
They do not seek the Buddha, with his great might,
without merit or wisdom,
or the Law that can end their sufferings,
how they enter the perilous road of birth and death, but enter deeply into erroneous views,
their sufferings continuing with never a break,
hoping to shed suffering through greater suffering.
how deeply they are attached to the five desires,
For the sake of these living beings
like a yak enamored of its tail,
I summon up a mind of great compassion.
blinding themselves with greed and infatuation,
When I first sat in the place of practice
their vision so impaired they can see nothing.
and gazed at the tree and walked around it,
for the space of three times seven days
I pondered the matter in this way.
The wisdom I have attained, I thought,
is subtle, wonderful, the foremost.
But living beings, dull in capacity,
are addicted to pleasure and blinded by stupidity.
With persons such as this, what can I say,
how can I save them?
FIRST READING
SECOND READING
Anatta-lakkhana Sutta, 22:59
The Discourse on No-self
Title: Pañcavaggi Sutta: Five Brethren;
Translator: Thanissaro Bhikkhu;
Publisher: BCBS;
Location: Massachusetts;
Year: 2013;
Page(s): 24-25.
Jataka Tales
Dana – A Small Portion of Gruel
Title: The Jātaka, or Stories of the
Buddha’s Former Births;
Translator: Monty McKeever;
Publisher: Himalayan Art;
Location: New York City;
Year: 2003;
Page(s): 15.
THIRD READING
The Lotus Sutra
Expedient Means
Title: The Lotus Sutra;
Translator: Burton Watson;
Publisher: Columbia;
Location: New York;
Year: 1993;
Page(s): 42.
BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (For Chicago Manual of Style citations and bibliography)
Confucianism
li
Excerpts on ritual
III.3 The Master said: If a man is not ren, what can he do with li? If a man in not ren, what can
he do with music?
III.4 Lin Fang asked about the root of li. The Master said, “An important question! In li it would
be better to be frugal than to be extravagant. In funeral ritual it would be better to be guided
by one’s grief than simply to attend to the ritual stipulations.”
III.15 The Master entered the Grand Temple and asked about every matter. Someone said,
“Who says this son of a man from Zou knows about li? Entering the Grand Temple, he asked
about every matter.” Hearing of this, the Master said, “That is li.”
III.19 Duke Ding asked, “How should a lord direct his minister and the minister serve his lord?”
Confucius replied, “If the lord directs his minister with li, the minister will serve his lord with
loyalty.”
III. …
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