Its a 10 page paper on the topic, I did a 5 page outline that was approved by my professor and has comments i have some sources though you might have to find others. The paper is on Traditional marriage in India and comparing it to the Novel midnight’s children that is on spark-notes. Overall I lay out the papers bones and structure.
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Christian Diaz
HI 398
Paper proposal
Ideals of marriage and Taboo love
I will start out with outlining what ideals of Indian marriages were in the past and are now in
today’s age. In doing so, I will be using Love and the Law: Love-Marriage in Delhi, which talks
about traditional marriage and the history of when it started. Some of the ideals are the main
points of South Asian marriage. Some examples are girls being virgins before marriage, arranged
marriages made by the parents of the boys and girls, and the religious aspect of a marriage. Next
I will talk about the present day ideals of marriage and love. They still have traditional
marriages, but females will disobey their parents. Since it is present day, the punishment would
be the family shunning the female. I will use the source, “The Nolan chart” which talks about the
present day culture of marriage in South Asia.
As one of my main talking points, I will introduce Rushdie’s novel The Midnight Children. I will
bring up taboo love such as Saleem’s sister’s love for Saleem’s best friend and how she shows
her love with pain. I will then talk about the love between Evie Burns and Saleem. Saleem starts
liking an American rough girl, which breaks the social norms India has, which treats love almost
like a business. I will then bring up more adult relationships that happen throughout the story,
like Saleem’s mother and her love for communism, which brings her back to meet her first
husband secretly. While it is taboo for Saleem’s mom to meet her ex-husband, this is the first
time readers can see that Saleem’s mom is educated. This is when I will introduce my first
secondary source, The Nation’s Monstrous Women: Wives, Widows and Witches, which talks
about how 19th century middle class women were educated. Following that, I will talk about
Saleem’s mom, Amina, and her marriage with Saleem’s father. Amina tries to follow the values
of a nationalist Indian marriage, as many attempt to do. She does so by embracing essential
Indianness by means of clinging to tradition. It is normal for many couples to attempt to follow
the ideals of a perfect marriage within their culture. This is because many want to put up a
certain image, showing those on the outside a relationship that is following the rules and looks as
it is supposed to be. Amina and Saleem’s father begin this process when the Sinais move to
Methwold’s estate. I will further dive into Amina role and how she both fails and succeeds at a
nationalist Indian marriage. Afterwards, I will talk about the taboo love that Saleem has for his
aunt Pia. His goes against India tradition and is considered very radical and taboo. During both
the time the book took place in and in current-day South Asia, incestuous relationship have been
brushed under the rug. However, this ignored social issue is not just a thing of the past. I will use
a source written by Arub Syed called “The Issue of Incest in Society” to futher expand on this
topic and relate the information back to Saleem and Pia’s relationship.
Next, I will talk about the affair that Pia had with her husband’s boss, and how she seemed to be
in control of the relationship. In South Asia, there is a pressing issue about men having all the
power in marriage. Like many cultures, there is a stigma that the males hold most if not all of the
power in a marriage. This separation of the sexes is rooted back to the start of the work force in
South Asia. As the country became civilized, men have started and continued to work in the
public sphere, making money and working within more complicated occupations than their
female counterparts. Women, on the other hand, started in the domestic sphere of occupations.
This clear divide between occupations, which began so long ago, is still rooted within today’s
society the way the relationship power is divided. This can even be seen in the type of clothing
that women of this culture will be seen wearing. Most if not all of the time, the women are in
extremely covering garments that hide almost all skin as well as their hair. I will use Steve
Derné’s journal article, “Hindu Men Talk about Controlling Women: Cultural Ideas as a Tool of
the Powerful” to bring in information on the divide of power between men and women in South
Asia, especially pertaining to marriage. The divide of power connects to Pia and her husband’s
relationship. She is a talented actress who is held back by her husband who only screen writes
contemporary pieces that will never get directed. As far as relationships, the last one I will talk
about is the relationships between Saleem and his stepsister. Even though they are not related, he
grew up with the Brass Monkey. When he reaches adolescence, he becomes in love with his
sister, which he knows is wrong. Up to this point, his love was mostly childish. As he grows up,
he realizes that he is un-pure for loving his sister in that way. This is significant because Indian
religion is very strict. Religion is symbolized when Salem’s sister only performs if she covers her
face like Hindu tradition this is a theme throughout the story.
Primary Source
The Midnight’s Children by Salman Rushdie. I will use the themes and examples of marriage
through the book to connect to modern day and historical south asia. Examples are like Saleem’s
thinking of love and the marriages that he witnesses, not being pure and having flaws that are not
talked about in Indian tradition.
Secondary sources
The Nation’s Monstrous Women: Wives, Widows and Witches. By Nicole Weickgenannt. This
dives deeper into the roles that women play throughout the story. I will use Amina Salem’s mom
thinking and how she tries to be traditional to talk about the flaws in marriage that Indian culture
does not talk about.
Love and the Law: Love-Marriage in Delhi By :Perveez Mody. Love-marriage talks about the
history of Indian marriage. I am using this as history point for my readers to understand the
background context of Indian love and marriage.
The Nolan Chart by: Kamala Budhathoki Sarup. Talking about modern day marriage this adds
to the background I want to set for my readers. I am assuming that my reader doesn’t know much
so this background information allows for the reader to understand how traditional south Asia is.
The Issue of Incest in Society by: Arub Syed. Talks about how incest is still throughout south
Asia and how it is not addressed. I use this to connect my point of Pia and Saleem like her as a
young child and I will also use it when I talk about Saleem and his love for his sister.
Hindu Men Talk about Controlling Women: Cultural Ideas as a Tool of the Powerful by:
Steve Derné’s. This is about how men work in a more demanding or respected occupation from
when south Asia formed. Women started with jobs that are less demanding so from that culture
there is a stigma that men are valued more than women in India are. I will connect how talented
Pia is as an actress and is not looked at the same because her husband who is not a good director
is still valued more.
Christian Diaz
Prof. McDonald
GLS 101
The last Samurai
In a overview of The last Samurai it talks about an ex US army military man who travels
to Japan in order to train Japans untrained army. Japans army lacks the fundamentals of what an
army should be made of, they are not prepared, not disciplined, and lack any sort of military
training. This posed a problem that could be seen throughout their nation, this made Colonel
Bagley, Captain Algren, and Sergeant Grant tasked with having to train the unqualified Japanese
soldiers. As the movie developed Nathan Algren the main character dives himself and embraces
the Japanese culture, he ends up wanting and succeeding in learning the ways of the Samurai and
picks up the Japanese language. A huge moment in the movie is when the main character Algren
sees his comrade Sergeant Grant killed while at war. While battling a rival Japanese group it was
clear that Algren soldiers were still unprepared and sent to fight anyway by Colonel Bagley.
However as the main protagonist Algren did not back down from the fight and fought with the
Japanese men that he attempted to train. This expresses not only his love for his men but him
now accepting and growing on the Japanese culture that he was starting to love. As viewers
learn, Algren has PTSD and the process of him learning the Japanese culture allows him to get
over and deal with PTSD. To add the Japanese culture also allows him battle with his alcoholism
and channel what makes him drink. Moving on, Algren makes friends with a highly regarded
Japanese soldier named Katsumoto, Katsumoto ends up Training Algren almost like an
apprentice. This is significant because at the start of the movie viewers and Algren would not
expect him to not only embrace Japanese culture but also now be taught a different style of
Christian Diaz
Prof. McDonald
GLS 101
fighting. Algren hones his skills and proves his training is successful by fighting off ninjas when
the village was attacked.
To answer the question, “What factors of location, history and approach to modernization
led to the economic success of Japan”. One can find the answer by dissecting the elements that
are presented in the film, this film displays examples of the shift and influence of Japans history
had on its economy. A rise in economic development is shown by United States military going to
Japan to train the Japanese’s men and make them soldiers. The question of location is answered
by where the U.S soldiers are training their men, which is Japan. Even as Japan has a rise in their
economy and a positive feedback of its government from its people, there was still the problem
of their weak army. Japan is a very small island so that allows for easier was to defend their land.
However, since their army is so untrained it leaves Japan vulnerable for attacks, and in a growing
economy, that is successfully adopting ideas from America other countries want to intervene and
take control of that success. When Algren and his comrades go to Japan their western influence
is shown by them training the Japanese military and them adopting the western norms to keep
their country safe. The movie shows how Japan is evolving and modernizing as they shift the
ideas of their culture and start practicing ideas that they see are working around the world and
that need to be changed in Japan. Other ways the U.S allows for Japan to benefit is during the
cold war when “U.S. to allow Japan to export to the US while protecting its domestic market,
enabling the formation of cartels and non-market driven factors in Japanese economy, and the
development of an asymmetrical trade relationship with the U.S. The export-driven economy
that Japan consequently developed also benefited enormously from an international market of
low tariffs (by joining the GATT, forerunner of WTO), low prices of oil and other raw materials
Christian Diaz
Prof. McDonald
GLS 101
needed for industrial development” ( U.S allow for Japan to benfit and contrict them
with their war because those are the ideals of the west allow a free market. The U.S also
“Japanese constitution forbids Japan from rearmament. Japan has lived under the umbrella of
U.S. military protection, spending only 1 per cent of their GNP on the military’s defensive
abilities (which is a huge sum of money as the Japanese economy grew to be the second largest
in the world). Which, percentage wise, helped save the Japanese much money if they were
militarily on their own” ( This sums up the ideals that they adopted America allows for
a free market and aids in protecting Japans economy because it not only benefits the U.S which
is a western ideal to protect assets, but they allow for the growth of their economy and in turn
lets the U.S military grow by having military reasonability.
Work cited
Nagao, Satoru. “Is Japan Truly a Powerful Country?” – The Diplomat, For The Diplomat, 15
May 2017,
Japanese Economic Takeoff after 1945,
My Tenth Birthday

Padma has returned to Saleem. An attempt to cure his erectile dysfunction, Saleem is now
older, Padma is more religious, he is alone as usual, this potions fail and make Saleem fall ill and
he gets fevers, talks about the midnight children 1,001 were born in the newly independent
India each have a special power. Thinks that since times are changing this generation was meant
to be different than the past.
Less than half die Saleem discovers there powers by traveling into their minds. The closer to
midnight the child was born the more divine there power was. Examples are parvai-the witch
has the powers of a real which, while shiva born with saleem has the power of war.
Friend: Ahmed remains successful but falls deeper into the hole of alcoholism and isolation
Character: Mary Pereira’s sister Alice works for Ahmed after his secretaries leave him
Marry is haunted by the ghost of Joseph D’costa until she confesses for her crime
Saleem’s tenth birthday comes he remembers the whole day, starting with the failure of the
governments five year plan, his mother blushing at the mention of communism, lastly when he
decided to create his own gang the MCC (Midnights Children’s conference
At the pioneer café

Has a nightmare that a person called the widow reaches out and destroys the midnight children
by ripping them all in two.
A personal account is mentioned about saleem’s son being taken to the pickle factory this is
meant for his son and his special.
Uses religions in comparison to what he is telling readers,
Returns to the year when he was 10 when he would only talk to the other midnight children for
an hour a day, in this memory he hides in his moms car and uses telepathy to follow through his
mother’s mind see’s she enters into the Pioneer café which is known as a hangout place for the
communist party. Saleem brings the midnight children together shows and then tramits aof
himself to there brain. He meets Shiva the one born at the same time.
Shiva thinks of him as the rich kid that his dad use to work for. Shiva wants the two of them to
lead the MCC. After Shiva intrrupts and disrupts what Saleem is trying to do, Saleem says that
Shiva is the god of destruction (indra)
This memory tells how powerful shiva is, he stopped the communist party from winning the
Shiva is Saleems antagonist, they don’t agree about the purpose of the world.
Alpha and Omega

In this chapter Saleem describes the fall out with his love Evie Burns, he describes the events of
that winter. Bombay is about to be divided, drought at the same time happens which leads to
people sabotaging the city water. The city is in chaos. Saleem and Evie burns make the deal that
he pays her to get rid of cats on the Methwold’s Estate. The brass monkey ( who is said to be
able to speak to animals in outraged and Evie and her start fighting. Months later Evie’s Dad

sent her away, and she writes to Saleem about how a she stabbed an old women who criticized
her on her removing the cats.
He questions whether his sister known as monkey can talk to animals.
He also emits to not liking Shiva in this chapter because of how he acted and suspected that he
was behind terrible crimes, but could not keep him out of MCC.
Saleem’s power grows and he has able to turn his mind basically into group chat where
Midnight children can all speak to each other.
Ignore the warnings of soumitra the time travler that people are after them
Saleem’s teacher Mr. zagallo pulls out his hair, and during his dance with mashfinger part of his
finger falls off by running away from bullies and getting his finger caught in a door.
Important in the hospital parents are asked to donate blood they are A and O Saleem is neither
so this proves he is not their parents Ahmed the dad thinks the wife had an affair.
Thinks back to the look on the fathers face knowing that wasn’t his son
The Kolynos
Saleem thinks of himself as the protagonist of his story, he thinks he is linked to India literally
and metaphorically
The story is then brought back to the day after the hospital Marry Pereira and his uncle pick him
up not his parents.
He is grateful and vows to be good to his uncle and his Wife Pia, starts a growth spurt first stages
of puberty
Thinks his aunt Pia is beautiful, she is an actress that blames her husband for career failing
because he writes films that will not be filmed
They face economic problems and only get money because Pia’s other secret lover Homie
Catrack pays the uncle studio salary.
Catrack gives 10 year old saleem a note and says he will send police to cut his tounge off if
anyone but the aunt receives the note
When she does her body stiffens and he can tell that Catrack is an enemy and that the right
thing was to show the uncle but he was scared.
Next day Pia comes home upset because the affair ended, while she is throwing a tantrum in the
room Saleem comes in and some how ends up caressing his aunty which she then calls him a
perv at the same time Marry Pereira is at the door way standing awkwardly to give Saleem a
package from his parents.
Amina comes to bring Saleem home and tells to be good to his father his now unhappy because
he knows Saleem is not his son by blood, and has revenge on his mind for his mom.
Commander Sabarmit’s Baton

Joseph D’Costa ghost that haunts Mary Pereira for switching the babies tells marry he wont
leave till she tells the truth.
Saleem sees that his father wants nothing to do with him, and that his sister Brass monkey is
now the favorite of the family.

To help her brother she tries to become a Christian so she can no longer be the favorite this
shows emotion that Saleem is not used to seeing.
MCC begins to fall apart, because everyone is growing up in different ways. Saleem and Shiva do
not agree on ideals Saleem wants a shared purpose and Shiva does not believe in idealistic ideas
Saleem learns from Dr.Schapsteker about how to spot and watch out for enemies, and plots and
attack on Homi Catrack and Lila Sabarmati for upsetting his aunt and tricking him.
He sends Sabarmati husband a news paper letter, husband a commander finds out and kills
Homi catrack and injuries his wife.
People look at the commander as a hero and the first jury aquits him but the judge does not
agree he goes to trial again and the public turns against him.
After Saleem’s mother doesn’t go to meet a man at the pioneer café and the people of
Methworld’s Estate sell there house to Dr. Narlikar who plans to build a mansion Ahmed
refuses to sell
Saleem thinks his sister misses her admirer sonny Ibrahim because when he is playing outside
she decides to smash his toy.

Saleem talks about knowing the wealthiest and most famous guru, cyrus was his childhood
friend and how his mother invented a history based off partly from a superman comic book
claiming that her son was holy.
As time passes and the houses around the estate are destroyed Pia calls to tell the family that
Saleem’s uncle Hanif committed suicide. The family morns for two months, Pia refused to morn.
And Hanifs mother refuses to eat till she does.
After Saleem apologizes for what he did to his aunt she admits to not mourning because Hanif
never included a certain drama in his films so she wants to respect that in how she acts. While
saying that she breaks out with grief.
Adam Aziz claims to have seen god and ask why his son died, god replied with god having his
Mary P thinks that he saw the ghost that haunts her a …
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