Length: 1-2 pages Format: Typed, double-spaced, 12 point font, numberedCitations: Chicago Manual of Style footnotes for each reference to the sourceSources: Base your essay entirely on the source you chose to analyze.Thesis: You must have a clearly articulated thesis statement. Read the prompt carefully, identify a central theme, and come up with an overall argument for your essay.Title: Give your paper a title that indicates what the paper is about (Something more revealing than “Primary Source Analysis”) Clever titles will be duly noted.Proofread: Thoroughly proofread and spell-check your paper.Prompt: Choose any primary source that has been assigned throughout the course. Examine the source carefully.Analyze the contents of the source and think about its significance in the context of the course. Step One:Find the answers to the following basic questions: Who created the source and when?What kinds of information does it contain? What topics, themes, or experiences stand out in the source? What does the source tell you about the lived experiences of people in the United States prior to 1877?Step Two:Write a two-page paper based on your findings. Keep in mind the following:You paper SHOULD NOT simply answer the above questions. Instead, you MUST organize your essay around a major theme that you uncover in your examination of the source and provide a clearly articulated thesis statement.
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The American Reuolution, r 7 6 j-t
Wrrnnnas, rHE HoNouRABLE House of Commons in England,
lr,rve of late draw[n] into question how far the General Assembly of
t lris coiony hath power to enact laws for laying of taxes and impos-
ffi${&ptrffim s
duties payable by the peopie of this, his Majesty’s most ancient
olony; for settling and ascertaining the same to all future times,
The Imeriran

tlrt’ IIouse of Burgesses of this present General Assembly have come
following resolves.
licsolved, that the first adventurers, settlers of this his Majesty’s
, r,lony and dominion of Virginia, brought with them and transmitt.rl to their posterity, and all other his Majesty’s subjects since
rrrlrabiting in this his Majesty’s colony, allthe privileges and immuto tlre
rr rt
Virginio Resolutions on the Stomp Act (1765)
ed,,lournals of the House of Burgesses of
Virginia 176r-1765 (Richmond, rgoil,pp. lxvi-lxvii, j6o.
Source: lohn Pendleton Kennedy,
licsolved, that by two royal charters granted by King fames the
;,,.ople of Great
colonists aforesaid are declared and entitled to all privileges
rr I i mmunities of natural born subjects, to all intents and purposes
r;l, the
The passage oI the Stamp Act by Parliament in
r 76 5
it’s that have at any time been held, enjoyed, and possessed by the
inspired the first
il they had been abiding and born within the realm of England.
l(csolved, that the taxation of the people by themseives, or by per-
maior split between colonists and Great Britairr. Pressed for funds because
.,,ns chosen by themselves to represent them,
of the enormous expense it had incurred in fighting the Seven Years’ War,
rllr,rt taxes the people are able to bear, or the easiest method of raisirr1, I hem, and must themselves be affected by every tax laid on the
1,r’,rplc, is the only security against a burdensome taxation, and the
,lr,,tinguishing characteristic of British freedom, without which
Parliament for the first time attempted to raise money from direct taxes in
the colonies rather than through the regulation of trade. The act required,
al1 sorts
ofprinted materiai produced in the colonies carry
purchased from authorities.
By imposing the stamp tax
without colonial consent, Parliament
directly challenged the authority oflocal elites who, through the assemblies they controlled, had established their power over the raising and
spending of money. They were ready to defend this authority in the name
of liberty. Virginia’s }{ouse of Burgesses approved four resolutions offered
by the fiery orator Patrick Henry. The Burgesses rejected as too radical the
constitution cannot exist.
lit’solved, that his Majesty’s liege people of this ancient coiony
lr,rvl cnjoyed the right of being thus governed by their own Assem-
lrr’ ,rrrcient
internal police, and that the same have
rr,’vlr been forfeited, or any other way yielded up, but have been
, rn,;l,rntly recognized by the king and people of Great Britain.
,ly r n the article of taxes and
last three resolutions that follow, including one calling for outright resistance to unlawful taxation.
licsolved, therefore, that the General Assembly of this colony,
1′., with his Majesty or his substitutes, have in their represen-
t,rt rvt’s
capacity, the only exclusive right and power to lay taxes and
upon the inhabitants of this colony; and that every attempt
who can only know
The American Reuolution, r
Voices of Freeilom
to vest such power in any other person or persons whatever than the
General Assembly aforesaid, is illegal, unconstitutional, and unjust,
and has a manifest tendency to destroy British as well as American
announced a boycott of British goods. They hoped to pressure British
rrrcrchants to persuade their government to repeal the measures’ By t77o’
lrowever, colonial merchants, as well as many Americans who did not
wnnt to do without British goods, decided to resume trade. In response, a
Resolved, that his Majesty’s liege people, the inhabitants of this
calling himself Brutus published a call for a continuation of
tlrc policy of nonimportation. He castigated the merchants as “mercantile
Nt,w yorker
colony, are not bound to yield obedience to any law or ordinance what
ever, designed to impose any taxation whatsoever upon them, othef
(“Don” being a Spanish word derived from “lord” and suggesting
had a right to a voice in
lit.ntry status). Mechanics (craftsmen), he insisted,
grtrblic policy. The letter iilustrates how the struggle for colonial rights led
than the laws or ordinances of the General Assembly aforesaid.
Resolved, that any person who shall, by speaking or writing, assert
or maintain that any person or persons other than the General
Assembly of this colony, have any right or power to impose or lay any
democratization of poiitics.
taxation on the people here, shall be deemed an enemy to his Majesty’s
lirrnNns, FELLow CIrtznus, fellow Countrymen, and fellow
Nothing can be more flagrantly wrong than the assertion of some
ol our mercantile Dons, that the mechanics have no right to give
I lrcir sentiments about the importation of British commodities.
who, I would ask, is the member of community, that
Why do you think the Virginia House of Burgesses adopted the fi rst fouf
resolutions but rejected the final three?
z. What would
be the difference between resting the
on “British freedom” and appealing to a more universal concept of iiberty?
independent of the rest? Or what particular class among us, has an
,’xclusive right to decide a question of general concern? When the
Non-Importation Agreement took place, what end was it designed
to answer? Not surely the private emolument of merchants, but the
rrniversal weal of the continent.
28. New York Workingmen Demond o Icice
in the Revolutionory Struggle (1770)
Source: Brutus, To the Free and, Loyal Inhabitants ofthe City and Colony
It was to redeem from perdition,
r0m total perdition, that stock of English Liberty, to which every
,,trbject, whatever may be his rank, is equally entitled. Amidst all
tlrc disparity of fortune and honors, there is one lot as common to
,rll linglishmen, as death. It is, that we are all equally free’ Sufficient
New-York . . . (New York, r zzD.
The struggle against British taxation measures of the r 76os greatly
expanded the boundaries of colonial politics. The following document
illustrates how ordinary workingmen in New York City claimed the right
to challenge the city’s prominent merchants in determining how far resis.
tance should go. In the aftermath of the Townshend Acts, a series of taxes
it therefore, to show the matchless absurdity of the exclusive claim,
few interested merchants have lately attempted, in a most
,r,;suming manner, to avail themselves, in determining on the queslron, whether the Non-Importation Agreement shall be rescinded, to
the good of the merr rlrscrve, that it was not solemnly entered into for
lr,rnts alone, but for the salvation of the Liberties of us all’
Voices of Freeilom
Of this the trading interest of this City were convinced, when,
after forming themselves into a Society for executing that Agreement, they not only requested a similar Association of the Mechan-
with them in support of the
important Company. When the parties engaged in it, none doubted
ics, but by frequent meetings, conspired
the necessity of so salutary
(llaltimore, rSzz), PP. 169-7o.
a means to encourage luxury, and the sacrifice of our inestimable
Rights as Englishmen, there was no medium. This view of the subject begat and brought to perfection, the important resolution, which

Has not our Mother Country, by
solemn Act of Legislation, declared that she has a right to impose
internal Taxes on us? And is not such an imposition incompatible
with our Liberty? But this law is a mere dead letter, unless it be carried into exercise by some future Act. For this Purpose was the Law
devised, imposing a Duty upon Tea, Paper, Glass, Painters Colors, etc.
the very articles which our Egyptian task-masters thought were most
essential to us, as being not hitherto the produce of this country.
And shall we not, for our own sakes, show that we can live without
them? What are all the riches, the luxuries, and even the conveniences of life, compared with that liberty wherewith God and
Nature have set us free, with that inestimable jewel which is the
basis of all other enjoyments?.
Rouse then my fellow citizen, fel-
low countrymen, and fellow Freemen, of all ranks, from the man of
wealth, to the man whose only portion is Liberty.
an importation of goods, which stern virtue ought ever to despise as
has inspired the enemies of our Liberty on the other side of the Atlan-
29. Associqtion of the New York Sons of LibertY
measure: every man saw, that between
tic, with fear and astonishment.
American Reuolution,
Liberty of New York City was one of many such groups that
up during the Stamp Act crisis of r765′ It was led by talented
hc Sons of
rnbitious lesser merchantS who enjoyed no standing among the colony’s
rvt’althy but commanded a broad following among the city’s
the boycott of
l,rlrorers, and sailors. The Sons took the lead in enforcing
boyIrritish imports that led to Parliament’s repeal of the act and a second
, rrtt directed against the Townshend Duties
ln r77 when Parliament passed the Tea Act, another taxation mea3,
r5′ the Sons
‘,rrrc, the Sons again organized resistance’ On December
l,ibcrty announced an agreement or association to resist the Tea
:iilined by “a great number of the principal
r lr a nts, lawyers, and other inhabitants of all ranks”‘ the
ilihtiy accused Britain of trampling on the freedom of the colonists
reatening to reduce them to “slavery’”
r noltowlNG
ASsocIArIoN is signedby
great number of the
grrincipal gentlemen of the city, merchants, lawyers’ and other
about the city to give
rrr habitants of all ranks, and it is still carried
with their
,ur opportunity to those who have not yet signed, to unite
ol cnslavingAmerica.
r. What social divisions in the colonies
z. In what respect
are apparent
does the author beiieve
Tnr AssocreuoN or rHE SoNS or Lrrnnrv or Nrw Yonx
in this broadside?
that all colonists are equal?
It is essential to the freedom and security of a free people’ that no
or their rept,rxcs be imposed upon them but by their own consent’
rr’:icntatives. For “What property have they in that which another
is the
by right, take when he pleases to himself?” The former
Voices of Freedom
The American Reuolution, r
undoubted right of Englishmen, to secure which
they expended
Act, reassumed the power of imposing taxes on
the American colonies; and insisting on it as a necessary badge
of parliamentary
supremacy, passed a bill, in the seventh year of his present
reign, imposing duties on all glass, painters,colours,
paper, and teas,
that should, after the zoth of November,
ry67,be,,imported from
Great Britain into any coiony or plantation in
America”. This bill,
after the concurrence of the Lords, obtained the
royal assent. And
thus they who, from time immemorial, have exercised
the right
become siaves
American colonies, entered into an agreement
to decline a part of
their commerce with Great Britain, untii the above
mentioned Act
should be totatly repealed.
This agreement operated so powerfully to the
disadvantage of the
manufacturers of England that many of them were
their clamours, and to provide the subsistence for them,
which the non importation had deprived them ol
the parliament,
in t77o, repealed so much of the Revenue Act as imposed
a duty on
glass, painters’colours, and paper, and left
the duty on tea, as a t’est 0f
the parliamentary right to tax us. The merchants
of the cities of
York and Philadelphia, having strictly adhered
to the agreement, so
far as it is related to the importation of articres
subject to an American
duty, have convinced the ministry, that some other
parliamentary supremacy over this country,
,rnd to remove the distress brought on the East India Company, by
Great Britain, after the repeal of the memorable
and detestabre stamp
sentatives in Parliament, do, by the Act in question,
deny us, their
brethren in America, the enjoyment of the same right.
As this denial,
and the execution of that Act, involves our slavery,
and would sap
the foundation of our freedom, whereby we shourd
lrc adopted to execute
millions and sacrificed the lives of thousands. And yet,
to the astonishment of all the world, and the grief of America,
the Commons of
giving to, or withholding from the crown, their
aids and subsidies,
according to their ownfree will and pleasure, signified
by their repre-
ill policy
of that Act. Accordingly, to increase the temptation to
tlrc shippers of tea from England, an Act of Parliament passed the
l,rst session, which gives the whole duty on tea, the company were
‘;trbject to pay, upon the importation of it into England, to the purr hasers and exporters; and when the company have ten millions of
pounds of tea in their warehouses exclusive of the quantity they
rrray want to ship, they are allowed to export tea, discharged from
t hc payment of that duty with which they were before chargeable.
In hopes ofaid in the execution ofthis project, by the influence of
I lrc owners of the American ships, application was made by the comr,r ny to the captains of those ships to take the tea on freight; but they
virtuously rejected it. Still determined on the scheme, they have
r hartered ships to bring the tea to this country, which may be hourly
r,xpected, to make an important trial of our virtue. If they succeed
irr l”he sale of that tea, we shall have no property that we can call our
own, and then we may bid adieu to American liberty. Therefore, to
prevent a calamity which, of all others, is the most to be dreaded,rl.ivery and its terrible concomitants-we, the subscribers, being
fiuenced from a regard to liberty, and disposed to use all lawful
lndeavours in our power, to defeat the pernicious project, and to
I r.rnsmit to our posterity those blessings of freedom which our ancestors have handed down to us; and to contribute to the support of the
( ommon liberties of America, which are in danger to be subverted,
,/rr, for those important purposes, agree to associate together, under
llre name and styie of the sons of New York, and engage our honour
to, and with each other faithfully to observe and perform the folI rwing resolutions, viz.
rst. Resolved, that whoever shali aid or abet, or in any manner
in the introduction of tea from any place whatsoever, into
I lr is colony, while it is subject, by a British Act of Parliament, to the
p,ryment of a duty, for the purpose of raising a revenue in America,
lrc shall be deemed an enemy to the liberties of America.
The American Revolution, r 7 6 j- t
Voices of Freeilom
Resolved, that whoever shall be aiding, or assisting,
in the
Ianding, or carting of such tea, from any ship, or vessel, or shall hire
any house, storehouse, or cellar or any place whatsoever, to deposit
the tea, subject to a duty as aforesaid, he shall be deemed an enemy
to the Iiberties of America.
3d. Resolved, that whoever shail sell, or buy, or in any manner
contribute to the sale, or purchase oftea, subject to a duty as aforesaid, or shall aid, or abet, in transporting such tea, by iand or water,
from this city, until the 7th George III, chap. 46, commonly called
the Revenue Act, shall be totally and clearly repealed, he shall be
deemed an enemy to the liberties of America.
4th. Resolved, that whether the duties on tea, imposed by this
Act, be paid in Great Britain or in America, our liberties are equally

radically altered the Massachusetts Charter of r69r by curthe governor to appoint previt,r i ling town meetings and authorizing
l,r,t,n paid for,
the council, and empowered military
These measures’ which
, , ,rrr manders to lodge soldiers in private homes’
of the
called the Intolerable Acts, destloyed the legitimacy
rrrrsly elected members of
pcrial government in the eyes of many colonists’ Opposition
..1,r t’ad to small towns and rural areas that
g,rr’vious resistance. A gathering of r,ooo residents of
resolutions prorrlt ticut, in May r774 erected a liberty pole and adopted
“scorn the chains of
, l,rirning that they were “the sons of freedom’who
,,l,rvcry” Britain had fashioned for America’
“instigated by the
,r, r used the British ministry of being
I rr r
irr Ncw England, the cause of
liberty had become the cause of God’
Resolved, that whoever shall transgress any of these reso-
lutions, we will not deal with, or employ, or have any connection
with him.
l’u0ce EoINGS oF FARMINGToN, Connecticut, on the Boston
Ar t, May 19,1774.
liarty in the morning was found the following handbill’
rr I r i n various parts of the town, viz:
To pass
How do the Sons of Liberty explain Britain’s motivations for passing the
place of
liament for farther distressing the American Colonies; the
Tea Act?
desired to attend.
z. What do they consider the relationship between property and liberty?
30. Formington, Connecticut, Resolutions on
the Intoleroble Acts (1774)
Source: Pekr Force,
Series 4, Vol. I, p.
through the fire at six o’clock this evening’ in honour to
American Archives (Washington, D.C.,
assemAccordingly, a very numerous and respectable body were
l,lt’tl of near one thousand people, when
of liberty; after
lr.r,t high, was erected and consecrated to the shrine
rvlrich the Act of Parliament for blocking
aloud, sentenced to the flames and executed by the
ul lhe common hangman; then the following resolves were
w,rs read
Parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing a series of coercive laws. These closed the port of Boston to all trade until the tea had
rncrican to be
greatest dignity, interest and happiness of every
united with our palent State, while our liberties are
st. That it is the
ly secured, maintained and supported by our
rightful Sovereign’
The American Reuolution, r 7 6 3-t
Voices of Freeilom
whose person we greatly revere; whose government, while duly
administered, we are ready with our lives and properties to support,
zd. That the present ministry, being instigated by the devil and
led on by their wicked and corrupt hearts, have a design to take
away our liberties and properties and to enslave usforever.
3d. That the late Act which their malice hath caused to be passed
in Parliament, for biocking up the port of Boston, is unjust, illegal
and oppressive; and that we and every American are sharers in the
insults offered to the town of Boston.
4th. ‘Ihat those pimps and parasites who dared to advise theirl
master to such detestable measures be held in utter abhorrence bf
us and every American, and their names loaded with the cur …
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