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IOT Based Person/Wheelchair Fall Detection
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Worry of dropping would possibly scale back physical activities leading to declining
social interactions and eventually resulting in depression. When it involves maturity, it becomes
necessary to observe our recent ones for his or her health and safety. Because of weakness and
weak joints they need a good risk of falling down. Currently it’s necessary to understand if
associate degree adult has fallen in order that he/she will receive timely delivery of medical help.
Conjointly folks on wheelchairs ought to be checked for fall detection to minimize the
consequences of a fall. .Most objective of the merchandise is to form an answer to forestall the
intense consequences of a fall whereas providing a convenient usage of the merchandise
similarly as alert once a fall event has occurred. All this is often finished the employment of
sensors like a rotating mechanism to live the person’s orientation and acceleration, a load sensing
element to live the burden of an individual United Nations agency is on a chair, a Wi-Fi module
and a small controller that sends the general readings to alert the involved folks. This method is
formed convenient to use by creating it a wearable device which will be worn on the hand or
hooked up to a chair.
1.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT
This system also embraces the same concept of wearable devices mentioned above. The
system is equipped with sensors that monitors the vital senses of the person and reports
constantly. Any abrupt or sudden changes in these values are taken as an anomaly and reported.
The system makes use of the following sensors i.e. a gyro meter, an accelerometer and a load
sensor in the case of wheelchair. These sensors measure the orientation of the person, their speed
and their weight. These sensors are calibrated under standard conditions and when a person falls
down, and a threshold is determined. This threshold values is taken as are ferrous value to
compare against the incoming readings from the sensors. If a major deviation is measured from
the reference value then we can assume that the person has fallen. Since the main aim is to
provide help to the person as soon as possible an alert is sent to the concerned person in the form
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IOT Based Person/Wheelchair Fall Detection
of a message informing them about the condition. An alarm also goes off to notify people nearby
to get their attention and receive help. Sometimes the difference in the values of the sensor may
not be from a fall but due to some other circumstances as well. To avoid a false alarm it is,
advisable to add a snooze button that may be turned on before the message is sent. Hence it is
necessary to have a time interval of a few seconds to a minute between the fall detection and the
sending of alert message. The major stumbling block is to identify the sensors and the
reintegration since different medical condition may require different sensors. Many test cases
need to be defined to calculate the average and the threshold values of these sensors.
1.3 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
An embedded system is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely
encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a general-purpose
computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few predefined
tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks,
design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems
are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.
Personal digital assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers are generally considered
embedded devices because of the nature of their hardware design, even though they are more
expandable in software terms. This line of definition continues to blur as devices expand. With
the introduction of the OQO Model 2 with the Windows XP operating system and ports such as a
USB port both features usually belong to “general purpose computers”, the line of nomenclature
blurs even more. Physically, embedded systems ranges from portable devices such as digital
watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers,
or the systems controlling nuclear power plants.
In terms of complexity embedded systems can range from very simple with a single
microcontroller chip, to very complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted
inside a large chassis or enclosure.
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1.4 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ES
Programming manages the dialects like ALP, C, and VB and so on., and Hardware
manages Processors, Peripherals, and Memory
Figure 1.1: Block diagram of embedded system
Memory: It is used to store data or address.
Peripherals: These are the external devices connected
Processor: It is an IC which is used to perform some task
1.5 MICROCONTROLLER (MC)
Microchips and microcontrollers are extensively used in embedded structures things.
Microcontroller is a programmable device.
Introduction of MC
A microcontroller has a CPU in spite of a settled proportion of RAM, ROM, I/O ports
and a clock implanted all on a solitary chip. The settled proportion of on-chip ROM, RAM and
number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them perfect for a couple of uses in which cost
and space are key.
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Figure 1.2: IC of LPC2148 MC
A microcontroller is a little PC on a solitary encouraged circuit containing a processor
center, memory, and programmable information/yield peripherals. Program memory as NOR
impact or OTP ROM is in addition much of the time included on chip, and a typically little
proportion of RAM. Microcontrollers are normal for presented applications, rather than the
microchips utilized in PCs or other all around supportive applications.
➢ Microcontroller (MC) might be called PC on chip since it has basic features of microchip
with internal ROM, RAM, Parallel and serial ports inside single chip. Or then again we
can state microchip with memory and ports is called as microcontroller. This is all around
utilized in clothes washers, vcd player, microwave, put forth a concentrated effort
adequacy or in endeavors.
➢ Microcontroller can be assembled in view of their bits took care of like 8bit MC, 16bit
MC.
➢ 8 piece microcontroller, suggests it can read, create and process 8 bit data.
1.6 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MC AND MP
It is clear from accept that in chip we have to interface additional circuitry for giving the
limit of memory and ports, for example we have to interface outside RAM for data
accumulating, ROM for program storing, programmable peripheral interface (PPI) 8255 for the
Input Output ports, 8253 for tickers, USART for serial port.
While in the microcontroller RAM, ROM, I/O ports, tickers and serial correspondence
ports are in amassed. By virtue of this it is called as “structure on chip”. So in little scale
controller there is no need of additional equipment which is interfaced in the microchip since
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memory and information yield ports are inbuilt in the microcontroller. Microcontroller gives the
adequate execution for small applications. Be that as it may, for enormous applications the
memory need is limited because only 64 KB memory is open for program amassing. So for far
reaching applications we slant toward chip than microcontroller due to its high processing speed.
Figure 1.3: Structure of microprocessor and microcontroller
1.7 Block Diagram of MC
Figure 1.4: Block Diagram of Micro Controller
➢ Compatible with MCS-51Products
➢ 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
➢ Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles
➢ 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
➢ Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
➢ Three-level Program Memory Lock
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➢ 256K Internal RAM
➢ 32 Programmable I/O Lines
➢ 3 16-bit Timer/Counters
➢ Eight Interrupt Sources
➢ Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
➢ Low-control Idle and Power-down Modes
➢ Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
➢ Watchdog Timer
➢ Dual Data Pointer
➢ Power-off Flag
1.8 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)
ASIC is a blend of advanced and simple circuits stuffed into an IC to accomplish the
coveted control/calculation work
ASIC regularly contains
➢ CPU habitats for figuring and control
➢ Peripherals to control timing fundamental limits
➢ Recollections to store data and program
➢ Simple circuits to give timekeepers and interface to this present reality which is
straightforward in nature
➢ I/Os to connect with outside parts like LEDs, memories, screens et cetera.
PC Instruction Set
There are two distinct kinds of PC direction set there are:
➢ RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) and
➢ CISC (Complex Instruction Set PC)
1.9 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
A RISC (reduced course set PC) is a chip that is proposed to play out less sorts of PC rule
so it can work at a higher speed.Since each rule create that a PC must perform requires additional
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transistors and equipment, a greater rundown or set of PC bearings tends to make the microchip
more tangled and slower in errand. Other than execution change, a couple of inclinations of
RISC and related arrangement updates are:
➢ A new microchip can be made and attempted simply more quickly in case one of its
focuses is to be less ensnared.
➢ Operating system and application programming engineers who use the chip’s rules will
believe that its less requesting to make code with a tinier heading set.
➢ The straightforwardness of RISC empowers greater chance to pick how to use the space
on a microchip.
More hoisted sum tongue compilers make more successful code than some time prior in
light of the way that they have continually had a tendency to use the humbler course of action of
rules to be found in a RISC PC
RISC characteristics
➢ Simple guideline set
➢ In a RISC machine, the bearing set contains clear, essential rules, from which more
marvelous rules can be shaped.
➢ Each bearing is a comparative length, with the objective that it may be gotten in a
singular errand.
➢ 1 machine-cycle bearings
Most bearings complete in one machine cycle, which empowers the processor to manage
a couple of rules meanwhile. This pipelining is a key technique used to quicken RISC machines.
Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
CISC, which stays for Complex Instruction Set Computer, is a rationale for arranging
chips that are definitely not hard to program and which make profitable use of memory. Each
course in a CISC rule set may play out a movement of assignments inside the processor. This
lessens the amount of headings required to execute a given program, and empowers the product
designer to take in a little anyway versatile game plan of rules.
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Favorable circumstances of CISC Architecture
At the period of their fundamental change, CISC machines used available headways to
propel PC execution.
➢ Microprogramming is as straightforward as low level processing develop to execute, and
altogether less exorbitant than hardwiring a control unit.
➢ The effortlessness of scaled down scale coding new rules empowered engineers to make
CISC machines upwardly great: another PC could run an unclear tasks from earlier PCs
in light of the way that the new PC would contain a superset of the headings of the earlier
PCs.
➢ As each bearing ended up being more gifted, less rules could be used to execute a given
errand. This made more powerful usage of the respectably direct essential memory.
➢ Because little scale program rule sets can be formed to facilitate the works of unusual
state tongues, the compiler does not should be as tangled.
1.10 EXAMPLES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
➢ Avionics, such as inertial guidance systems, flight control hardware/software and other
integrated systems in aircraft and missiles
➢ Cellular telephones and telephone switches
➢ Engine controllers and antilock brake controllers for automobiles
➢ Home automation products, such as thermostats, air conditioners, sprinklers, and security
monitoring systems
➢ Handheld calculators
➢ Handheld computers
➢ Household appliances, including microwave ovens, washing machines, television sets,
DVD players and recorders
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➢ Medical equipment
➢ Personal digital assistant
➢ Videogame consoles
➢ Computer peripherals such as routers and printers.
➢ Industrial controllers for remote machine operation.
1.11 ARM ARCHITECTURE
ARM is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by the ARM Corporation. ARM
processors possess a unique combination of features that makes ARM the most popular
embedded architecture today. First, ARM cores are very simple compared to most other generalpurpose processors, which means that they can be manufactured using a comparatively small
number of transistors, leaving plenty of space on the chip for application specific macro cells. A
typical ARM chip can contain several peripheral controllers, a digital signal processor, and some
amount of on-chip memory, along with an ARM core. Second, both ARM ISA and pipeline
design are aimed at minimizing energy consumption a critical requirement in mobile embedded
systems. Third, the ARM architecture is highly modular: the only mandatory component of an
ARM processor is the integer pipeline; all other components, including caches, MMU, floating
point and other co-processors are optional, which gives a lot of flexibility in building
application-specific ARM-based processors. Finally, while being small and low-power, ARM
processors provide high performance for embedded applications. For example, the PXA255
XScale processor running at 400MHz provides performance comparable to Pentium 2 at
300MHz, while using fifty times less energy
1.7 APPLICATIONS OF ES
➢ Manufacturing and process control
➢ Construction industry
➢ Transport
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➢ Buildings and premises
➢ Communications
➢ Office frameworks and portable gear
➢ Banking, fund and business
➢ Medical diagnostics, checking and life bolster
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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
In venture with the planet Health Organization pretty much 28-35% of people matured
sixty five and over fall every year expanding to 32-42% for those more than seventy years
getting on. The recurrence of falls will increment with age and slightness level. A fall
recognition framework will be plot as partner degree accommodating gadget whose fundamental
target is to caution once a fall occasion has happened. Amid a genuine circumstance, they require
the possibility to moderate some of the unfavorable outcomes of a fall. In particular, fall
indicators will have an on the spot affect on the decrease inside the stress of falling and
furthermore the quick arrangement of assistance once a fall. Indeed, falls and stress of falling
depend upon each other .Treatment and social insurance speak to one in all the principal drawing
in application zones for the IOT. The IOT can possibly exhibit ascend to a few medicinal
applications like remote wellbeing watching, work out regimes, constant maladies and more
seasoned consideration. Fluctuated restorative gadgets, sensors and indicative and imaging
gadgets will be seen as great gad gets or articles comprising a center a piece of IOT. IOT based
for the most part tending administrations, downsize cost, increment personal satisfaction and
improve client’s skill.
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IOT Based Person/Wheelchair Fall Detection
CHAPTER 3
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
ARM7 is the major modules used in the project whose detailed information is discussed
in this chapter. Along with all the individual modules and their explanation is provided in this
chapter. Block diagram gives the brief idea about the overall modules used which is the
explained prior to all other information.
3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WHEELCHAIR FALL DETECTION
Fig: 3.1 Block diagram of wheelchair fall detection
3.2 OVERVIEW OF BLOCK DIAGRAM
This Control panel is made in engine and for real application in the engine author has
developed another Control panel with the use of software. The control panel in the engine
consists of LCD, supply switches, data pins. LCD is used for displaying the 12 bit unique code of
MEMS.
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3.3 INDIVIDUAL BLOCKS
The project ARM 7 based wireless controlled robot in to detect the track cracks in
railways.
➢ ARM7 LPC2148
➢ MEMS
➢ JYOSTICK
➢ BUZZER
➢ Motor driver IC
➢ Two DC motors and
➢ Power supply unit
And the remote section which contain
1. PC or mobile or any display module
3.3.1 ARM7 PROCESSOR
A microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports and
a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM and number of
I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are
critical.
Figure 3.1 IC of LPC2148 MC
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Fig 3..2 Pin diagram of LPC2148
A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a
processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the
form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small
amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the
microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.
Microcontroller (MC) may be called computer on chip since it has basic features of
microprocessor with internal ROM, RAM, Parallel and serial ports within single chip. Or we can
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save microprocessor with memory and ports is called as microcontroller. This is widely used in
washing machines, vcd player, microwave oven, and robotics or in industries. Microcontroller
can be classified on the basis of their bits processed like 8bit MC, 16bit MC.8 bit microcontroller
means it can read write and process 8 bit data.
The ARM7 LPC2148 Primer board is especially expected to help understudies with acing
the required capacities in the area of embedded structures. The pack is sketched out in such way
that all the possible features of the microcontroller will be successfully used by the understudies.
The unit reinforces in system programming (ISP) which is done through serial port. NXP’s
ARM7 (LPC2148), ARM Primer Kit is proposed to smooth the progress of making and
investigating of various frameworks including of High speed 32-bit Microcontrollers
Fig: 3.3 ARM7 lPC2148 microcontroller board
ARM7 LPC2148 Microcontroller Socket is used with LPC2148 Pro Development Board.
It is a standalone board for LPC2148 microcontroller. It has 12MHz crystal for system clock and
32KHz crystal for RTC. It has power on reset circuit with MCP130T brownout monitoring chip
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and power decoupling capacitors. This board can be used for LPC2148 based generic
development.
SPECIFICATIONS
➢ Microcontroller: LPC2148 with 512K on chip memory
➢ Crystal for LPC2148: 12Mhz
➢ Crystal for RTC: 32.768KHz
➢ Operating Supply: 3.3V
➢ Power on reset circuit with MCP 130T brownout detection
LPC2148 FEATURES
➢ 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a tiny LQFP64 package.
➢ 40 kB …
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