Minimum 500 words each with references and citations. find attached doc’s for research topic and references.
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• Introduction
• Theoretical Framework
• Application of eParticipation
• Leadership Training in Nigeria
• Conclusions
• Digital divide
• Access to information and communications technology (ICT)
• Increasingly difficult for lagging countries
• eParticipation
• Increasing utilization of ICT in eGovernance
• Key to bridging the digital divide
• Lagging countries need ICT capacity to support eParticipation
• Nigeria
• Sample case
• Leaders not well versed in technology
• How can eParticipation and leadership training bridge the digital divide?

Theories of eParticipation capacity application

Structuration theory
• Structures are produced and altered as a result of human activity (i.e. as a response to needs)

Institutional theory
• Institutional environment influences existing structures by incorporating innovative new ideas

Actor-Network theory
• Individuals are separate actors
• Relationships between actors are mapped, forming networks

All influence


Digital Opportunity Index (DOI)

eParticipation when applied to simulation exercises

ICT performance indicators
Involve use of ICT as tools
ICT tools in eParticipation include

Connection devices
Visualization and engagement software
Social media interaction
• National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS)
• Nigerian leadership training institution
• Government think tank
• Crisis Simulation Game
• Players are briefed on theme, rules, roles, scenario
• Study game theme was “political zoning”
• Nigerian application of eParticipation is basic
• Less sophisticated than most other nations
• Lagging behind generally
• Personnel were eager to incorporate more advanced ICT
• Nigerian NIPSS Crisis Simulation Game
• Case study for assessing digital divide
• Main conclusion: digital divide is a global problem
• Not a local one
• Must be addressed from the bottom up
• Recommendations

eParticipation must be more globally available
Less developed countries must prioritize move toward eGovernance
Citizens must be encouraged to engage in eParticipation
eParticipation, eGovernance, and eDemocracy legislation is beneficial at all levels of government
The UN should continue to improve programs that support eParticipation
Each student will write a short research paper for a peer-reviewed research paper
that pertains to the week’s assigned reading. This will be a detailed summary of
the research paper and what you gained from the research. Each week, you will find
an article/peer-reviewed research paper that pertains to the week’s assignment. If
you have a difficult time, Google Scholar is a wonderful location to find these
types of articles:
Once you find the article, you will simply read it and then write a review of it.
Think of it as an article review where you submit a short overview of the article.
*All outside sources must be referenced and cited in your paper. All papers will
be reviewed with a plagiarism software. Any references not properly referenced and
cited will result in a 0 on your paper. Multiple violations will result in a
failure for the course!
• Introduction
• Theoretical grounds of policy implementation
• Approaches to policy implementation
• Five case studies
• Lessons learned
• Conclusion
• Population and burning fossil fuels

Factors of high pollution
• Environmental policy is high priority
• Most nations initiated projects to improve climate
• Focus

Sustainable energy management
Renewable energy sources
• Five case studies on climate change and energy use
• Comparative investigation

What approaches are used?
How can implications be measured?
How easily can approaches be applied to other domains?

Policy implementation

Turning theory into practice
• Gaps often occur / Formulated versus implemented policy

Instruments for climate change policy

Financial measures
Legal / regulatory instruments
Organizational measures
Certificates or marketable permits / quotas
Policy instruments for renewable energy

Regulations and standards
Quantity instruments
Price instruments
Public procurement
• Top-down
• Policies are communicated from policy-makers
• Bottom-up
• Focus is on policy implementers
• Macro- and micro-implementation
• Macro -Government -> local authorities
• Micro – Local government -> local polices
• Principal-agent theory
• Policy makers (principals) delegate responsibility to officials (agents)
• Assessing the EU Policy Package in Climate Change and Renewables
• German Nuclear Phase-Out and Energy Transition Policy
• KNOWBRIDGE: Cross-Border Knowledge Bridge in the RES Cluster in East
Slovakia and North Hungary
• KSR’s Strategy for the Use of Renewable Energy Sources
• MODEL: Management of Domains Related to Energy in Local Authorities
• Main common focus
• Renewable energy sources
• Some projects defined clear goals
• Dates
• Quantifiable targets
• Others focused on long-term strategies
• Precise targets versus investigating issues
• Biggest takeaway
• Involving consumers in policy making increases implementation success

Climate change and transition to RES is a serious issue
Awareness is growing

But not fast enough
• Public policy is necessary to move away from fossil fuels
• Projects show how RES can be possible and sustainable
• However

Transition to RES is expensive
One reason for slow adoption
write a research paper that explains how Information Technology (IT) promotes
getting people who are affected by policies involved in the policy-making process.
Cite specific examples.
So in summary, here are the research paper requirements:
2 peer reviewed resources (articles or papers) (1 may be from your annotated
bibliography assignment)
Paper MUST address: How Information Technology (IT) promotes getting people who are
affected by policies involved in the policy-making process. Cite specific examples.
Cited sources must directly support your paper (i.e. not incidental references)
At least 500 words in length.
If you are not sure how to identify peer reviewed papers or articles, please visit
the following resources:

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