It’s a response to this question:https://www.studypool.com/discuss/17378773/special-considerations-in-international-and-humanitarian-disaster-managementI need to provide a substantive response to my co-students and support my idea. In the attachments, you will find 3 classmates that I want a separate file for each one.Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.Each response should be at least 150 words.
afrah.docx
molly.docx
zorina.docx
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In a catastrophic situation, the government and the citizen have to several issues.
Some of those issues are related to the coordination of the people during catastrophe.
The problem of coordination and collaboration during a disastrous situation among
the locals of city, province or a country has come an immersing issue now days. In
such scenarios people are not at all mentally ready to cope with the situation, so this
becomes difficult for the government of the country or the disaster management
authorities to handle the situation in the best way possible. Following are some issues
of disaster coordination:
1. Evacuation
2. Terrorist attack
3. The reliability of network
The most important thing during a disaster is the evacuation of the affected area, and
while doing so a lot of coordination is need from every department of the disaster
management authorities, the most cooperation is needed from the side of citizens. The
most important step is the clearing of individuals from an urban region on account of
a catastrophe or risk. So as to empower a quick and safe clearing, traffic streams can
be re-coordinated, and flight times can be settled on (Doerner, Gutjahr, &
Wassenhove, 2011).
Another most important issue that arises in coordination or collaboration of any team
in a disastrous situation is of “Terrorism”. While addressing this issue I would like to
give an example of the terrorism attack happened on world trade center 9/11.
Coordination becomes of basic significance to calamity the board in the wake of the
assaults on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. It is perceived that
coordination is fundamental for distinguishing and counteracting terrorist assaults,
however additionally for guaranteeing an effective nearby reaction to fear based
oppressor occasions. At the point when fear-based oppressor related occasions
happen, coordination is basic among cops, firemen crisis therapeutic experts, general
wellbeing laborers, and other comparative crisis Personnel Fear based oppressor
assaults, similar to the ones on the World Trade Center, require phenomenal degrees
of coordination. Such fiasco not just fires, wrongdoing scenes, or crises with harmed
individuals, a can occur momentarily at the same time overpowering the capacity of
any office or locale to react (Khorram-Manesh, 2017).
One more issue, which arises while condition, is the network problem. In catastrophic
situations such as earth quake flood, or tornado. The network gets effected, the level
of communication between people drops down, which increases the chances of more
casualties zero coordination between the citizens and the disaster management
authority. In such situation the network should rebuilding of a network should be the
stop priority of the Disaster management team (Doerner, Gutjahr, & Wassenhove,
2011). People should be given proper awareness about such situation; they should be
taught how to cooperate in such situations with other people.
References:
Doerner, K., Gutjahr, W., & Wassenhove, L. (2011, July). Special issue on
optimization in disaster relief. OR Spectrum, 33(3), 445–449.
doi:10.1007/s00291-011-0262-3
Khorram-Manesh, A. (2017). Handbook of Disaster and Emergency
Management. Gothenburg, Sweden: INSTITUTE OF CLINICAL SCIENCES
SAHLGRENSKA ACADEMY GOTHENBURG UNIVERSITY.
I chose to examine how we can prevent corruption following a disaster. When I went to
Texas, I heard stories from the residents there about how out of state contractors were
quoting obscene amounts of money for repairs or tear-downs. The predatory and
corrupt nature exhibited by some individuals is troubling and certainly needs to be
addressed.
The issue can be broken down into two categories: public and private sector corruption.
The public sector is more in control of the recovery efforts and has the potential and
incentive to assist citizens who cannot recover on their own in an ideal world.
Unfortunately, public choice theory often gets in the way of altruism. A study examined
the reasons why the public sector becomes corrupted following disasters by looking at
Hurricane Katrina and the Fukushima earthquake and tsunami. It found that public
officials are pressured to provide aid not based on demonstrated need, but based on reelection prospects, and are primarily influenced by “well-organized special interest
groups” (Yamamura, 2014). Extrapolating, this means that those who are most severely
affected by a disaster will not have the resources or time to organize, and thus, their
particular interests could be overlooked. There is an equation that describes the amount
of funding that will be allocated by government officials to NGOs, and I highly
recommend reading the article if you can bear to sift through a little calculus
(Yamamura, 2014). The equation is also able to predict the subjective trend regarding
the amount of corrupt practice based on the appropriation of funds. Yamamura (2014)
also found that when disasters are more frequent and intense, corruption increases. All
of these factors play a contributing role in government corruption following disasters.
The private sector is a bit trickier to enforce since they work mostly outside of the
constraints imposed on government officials. My anecdote is an excellent example of
the moral depravity that can surface following a disaster. Private sector companies and
individuals may try to play the system and prey on people’s needs following a disaster
to maximize revenue.
So how do we combat corruption? I’ve identified a couple of key factors that might
influence the development of perceived or actual corruption: accountability, knowledge
of conditions, and organizational culture. First, accountability can be described as how
stakeholders set standards for politicians or NGOs. The public must be made aware of
any transgressions so that they can either not support the actions of a politician or
financially boycott agents of the private sector to reduce corruption. Essentially, the
spread of information and increased transparency would utilize public choice theory in a
more altruistic way based on morals instead of selfishness. A decrease in biased or
indiscriminate spending can be accomplished by mandatory reporting, or by instituting a
system that requires multiple levels of approval before engaging in recovery efforts. The
second factor, knowledge of conditions, can be addressed by conducting more in-depth
damage assessments before tackling the situation. While it is tempting to provide
immediate aid, I hold the opinion that delaying mobilization to develop a cohesive plan
with have a net higher utility. Hurricanes Katrina and Maria, and the Haitian earthquake
are excellent examples of how the public and private sectors sometimes put the cart
before the horse. Anecdotal stories of supplies stranded outside the affected areas
abound since the response and recovery plans were not logically and sequentially
organized with a full picture of conditions. It’s hard to do “nothing” at first, but in the end,
I think that it would save a lot of headaches and provide aid to those most in need. The
third and final factor to address is organizational culture. In the private sector, the focus
is usually on the money. While I don’t think there’s much that we can do to change that
as EM professionals, we can help screen potential responding agencies to ensure
ethical practices. Instating a permit system associated with a set of rules and
expectations for non-local NGOs could help keep predatory individuals at bay.
Addressing these perceived deficiencies is not a comprehensive plan, but I think it’s a
good start. Feel free to build on this and let me know if there are any other factors I
missed!
Yamamura, E. (2014). Impact of natural disaster on public sector corruption. Public Choice,
161(3), 385–405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-014-0154-6
How would you as an Emergency Manager: prevent corruption following a disaster;
The issue of corruption has been a problem for as long as man can remember, people who
have access to means and power often let it distort their focus and mission to assist people. There
are thousands of examples of corruption in different governments, aid organizations, political
groups, etc. Corruption has been described as a disease because of how quickly it can spread and
threaten the work that has already been completed (Mackey et al., 2016). Corruption is complex
because it usually involves more than one person and can be spread throughout multiple
agencies, making it challenging to tackle. Corruption is seen on a spectrum ranging from petty to
grand corruption, which occurs in the highest level of government (Mackey et al., 2016).
While many agencies have an anti-theft or anti-corruption policy or zero-tolerance rule
by the time the organization finds wrongdoing, they could be missing thousands or millions of
dollars. The first step to minimize corruption is better data analyses, how much funding were we
allotted, and where is it going to go. Also, data collection on who is handling the spending with
documented receipts, including email correspondences. By pre-planning Spending an
organization can raise red flags if they go over or under budget in certain areas. Another way is
transparency and a transparent chain of custody by fully disclosing financial documents and
transactions; this can act as a deterrent to potential thieves because they know that the
organization is watching the accounts.
These are a start in minimizing corruption agencies also need to be careful in who they
higher and continually monitoring their employees. Communicating the needs and vision of the
organizations and showing data on the communities that they are serving may act as a moral
deterrent as well. There is no one way to stop corruption; however, showing vigilance and
tugging on the emotional factor may help.
Reference
Mackey, T. K., Kohler, J. C., Savedoff, W. D., Vogl, F., Lewis, M., Sale, J., … Vian, T. (2016).
The disease of corruption: views on how to fight corruption to advance 21st-century global health
goals. BMC
medicine, 14(1), 149. doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0696-1

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