It’s a response to this question: need to provide a substantive response to my co-students and support my idea. In the attachments, you will find 3 classmates that I want a separate file for each one.Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.Each response should be at least 150 words.
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The causes of crises have seemed to be relatively the same throughout history. Political instability, climate change
and pandemics have been a reality for humans in history. However, over time the causes of crisis have grown more
complex, affecting larger populations and destroying entire economies and infrastructure. The complexities of these
crises impact to the delivery of humanitarian aid because of the security of the aid workers and the coordination
challenges of government agencies and humanitarian organizations.
Humanitarian crises complexities have evolved in the increasing violence against humanitarian aid workers
(Coppola, 2011). Therefore, humanitarian organizations and government agencies that send aid workers spend a
great deal of time and resources assessing the safety of conflict areas to which aid workers will be deployed. These
security efforts do impact the delivery of relief efforts to impacted populations. If areas are deemed unsafe, aid
workers are not sent there thus leaving impacted civilians to suffer. Organizations will put aid workers out in the
middle of a mission if their area grows unsafe. And in cases where humanitarian aid workers safety is at risk, it
is required that the aid workers only travel outside their compounds a certain distance at certain times of the
day and only stay at those locations for a certain amount of time (European Commission, 2018). Therefore,
the aid worker disproportionally delivers resources to the accessibility of those populations.
While violence continues to increase and humanitarian aid workers are targeted in areas of conflict, as an emergency
manager, I would utilize technology more to mitigate these issues. One way I would utilize technology is through
the use of drones. Drones can be used to map out the destruction and changing landscape of an impacted area that
needs to be considered when deploying workers. Drones can also be used to transport disease samples to be used for
laboratory testing and even drop medical supplies to an impacted community. In 2016, Zipline drones were used to
transport blood transfusions to parts of Rwanda that were impossible to reach by traditional transportation (Swiss
Foundation for Mine Action. n.d.). Technology innovations such as these, should not be
overlooked because by using drones to deliver medical necessities, it puts the aid
worker out of harms way as well as reaches impacted populations that otherwise would
not have been reached.
The complexities of humanitarian crises require a response for multiple actors, in which case, coordination of these
responders is necessary to ensure a successful response. However, with so many different organizations and
agencies involved, governmental, private or non-profit, coordination has shown in past crises to lack. Not all
organizations and government agencies share the same objective in giving aid (Humphries, 2013). There are
essentially two arguments of how humanitarian relief can be provided, first is a unified command system that
clusters the organizations together to tackle the same objectives. The second, is each organization acts on their own,
therefore if one organization fails then the other does not. While each argument carries its own pros and cons. I
believe there is a middle ground that could be met (Humphries, 2013). As an emergency manager, I would want to
know what organizations are planning to deploy, what resources they will be bringing as well as location they plan
to administer these resources. By having someone who will coordinate where and what resources will be
administered and by who, it would eliminate the risk that sections of the impacted communities will be missed or
will be given relief resources twice.
Emergency management will always be an evolving profession as humanitarian crises and disasters continue to
happen and grow more complex. As an emergency manager it is important to know what strategies have been used
before, how successful they were and what resources such as technology can be used to the advantage of relief
Coppola, D. P. (2011). Introduction to international disaster management: 3rd ed. Boston, MA: ButterworthHeinemann
European Commission. (August 2018). In the heart of Africa, the battle for humanity. Medium
Corporation. Retrieved from:
Howe, K. (2016, January). No End in Sight: A Case Study of Humanitarian Action and the Syria Conflict [PDF].
Humphries, Vanessa. (30 April 2013). Improving humanitarian coordination: Common
challenges and lexxons learned from the cluster approach. The Journal of Humanitarian
Assistance. Retrieved from:
Maurer, Peter. (2016, November 3). Humanitarian crisis are on the rise. By 2030, this is how
we’ll respond. World Economic Forum. Retrieved
Swiss Foundation for Mine Action. (n.d.). Drones in humanitarian action. Retrieved
Unfortunately, due to many factors, the chances of disasters occurring are increasing with
the time (The Future Red Cross and Red Crescent, n.d). According to the Norwegian Refugee
Council, one person is displaced by a disaster every second due to the increasing disasters
(Norwegian Refugee Council, n.d.). This increase in people’s displacement is increasing the
people’s vulnerability, and it increases the load on humanitarian organizations when it comes to
any humanitarian response. The issue is that both man-made and natural disasters are growing,
and sadly it seems to get worse, not better from my viewpoint.
In natural disasters, we can not say that people are the cause behind the disaster, yet we
can blame people for the disastrous consequences. What differentiates a disaster event from
terrible weather or event is the effect of that event on human life and the infrastructure
(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2019). Part of the massive loss in human beings and
infrastructure loss goes back to the infrastructure vulnerability before the disaster. The
infrastructure could be vulnerable because of its design or sometimes because people act like
corruption. This weakness in the infrastructure will increase the chances of population
displacement due to the disaster. The population displacement may create a humanitarian crisis
for those who were affected by the disaster.
By investing in the infrastructure, we can reduce humanitarian needs, live loss, and
repairing the coast. One example of how investing in the infrastructure makes a huge difference
between the two disasters is Olive View Medical Center, California. In 1971, an earthquake
occurred, which result in three deaths and destroy most of the buildings, which make the owners
rebuilt the whole center again in 1988 (FEMA, 1996). The rebuilding prosses coast around 48
million, yet this time they changed the buildings’ code to mitigate any further earthquake
(FEMA, 1996). In 1994, another earthquake occurred and affected the structure, yet this time due
to the investing in the infrastructure, it only cost 11% of the 1988 building cost with no human
lost (FEMA, 1996).
One might say how we can link the hospital example to humanitarian aid. Well, any
disaster situation like what happened in that hospital might create a humanitarian situation that
requires humanitarian assistance. During the semester, we learned many examples of people
forcibly displaced due to infrastructure loss, which caused a humanitarian situation that requires
humanitarian aid. In my opinion, as an emergency manager, instead of paying millions in
immediate humanitarian, we should invest in the infrastructure of the vulnerable area in order to
reduce the needed effort in case any disaster occur in the future.
Unlike natural disasters, we can blame people on a man-made disaster like conflicts. In
conflicts, many people are forced to flee the area and leave everything behind, looking for safe
refuge. Due to that, many of these people are facing poverty, health issues, and education issues.
The Syrian civil war is one of the worst examples of a man-made disaster that poses many
challenges for the whole humanitarian community (Howe, 2016). The humanitarian system
failed to deliver the best aid in the Syrian civil war crisis (Howe, 2016). In my opinion, this
failure in the Syrian is telling us that the old methods are not working anymore.
One solution that we as humanitarian responders should try in order to deliver the aids to
people this escalating war and other escalating wars in the world in the future is making
partnerships with the local organization (Howe, 2016). By being partners with the local
organizations, we can deliver aids without fear, which was the reason that many humanitarian
organizations stopped their operations in Syria (Howe, 2016). As an emergency manager, I can
not think of a better solution for the time being.
Finally, in the literature, I found a simple method to determined how we, as humanitarian
responders can predict the impact and need of any disaster in this changing world (American
Academy of Pediatrics, 2019). This method depends on two factors the disaster itself and the
vulnerability (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2019). By looking into the disaster and the
points of vulnerability in the affected areas, we can predict the impact (American Academy of
Pediatrics, 2019). From an emergency management perspective, when we anticipate the impact,
we can estimate or predict the emergency needs in any disaster.
Howe, K. (2016, January). Planning from the Future: A Case Study of Humanitarian Action and
the Syria Conflict. Retrieved
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2019). Disasters and Their Effects on the Population: Key
Concepts. Retrieved from
FEMA. (1996, December 12). Report on cost and benefit of Natural Hazards Mitigation.
Retrieved from
Norwegian Refugee Council. (n.d.). Disaster and climate change. Retrieved from
The Future Red Cross and Red Crescent. (n.d.). Global challenge 2. Retrieved from
This week’s reading was rather harrowing. It exposed the apparent futility and inefficiencies of
managing complex conflict-driven humanitarian crises. One statement from an NGO that stuck
out to me was “What are we doing? We provide food baskets so that when Syrians are killed by
barrel bombs, they aren’t hungry” (Howe, 2016). The current state of international humanitarian
aid is reminiscent of the Greek story of King Sisyphus, who was condemned to push a boulder
up a hill only for it to roll back to the bottom as it neared the top. The conflict in Syria has been
bloody, with 75% of deaths attributed to civilians not directly involved in the conflict, including
20,000 children (Howe, 2016). The incidence of violence surrounding many recent crises has
become a hallmark of disasters.
I predict that the complexities involved with conflict will begin to affect the way we approach
humanitarian disasters. Specifically, I think that we will start to see an increase in the incidence
of armed/militarized humanitarian response. Without adequate protection for responders, the
provision of aid is a difficult sell in areas wrapped with conflict. Although they are somewhat
unrelated topics, we are seeing a similar shift in schools where it is becoming more common to
have an armed School Resource Officer or armed administrators and teachers to deal with
potential assaults. As aspiring emergency management professionals, we should engage in
discourse regarding security and aid in conflict to address these realities proactively. Although
Howe (2016) stated that humanitarians feel as though it is not their job nor place to actively
address violence or local politics, the feelings might change to address the sources of crisis
instead of alleviating the symptoms. The international community could be a powerful
incentivizing force, even if it does not engage directly in conflict.
As climate change and other human-caused ecological conditions morph, there will be more
natural disasters and people affected by them, which we discussed in class. In addition to the
conflict in Syria, there are ongoing humanitarian crises in Yemen, Iraq, the Democratic Republic
of the Congo, South Sudan, Afghanistan, Somalia, Palestine, Sudan, Myanmar, Central African
Republic, Ethiopia, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Mali, and Venezuela (SIDA, 2019). Keep
in mind that those countries are just the high-profile incidents – other areas fall below the radar of
large-scale intervention. Last year, only 60% of the world’s humanitarian needs were addressed
by the international community (SIDA, 2019). Instead of focusing primarily on response to these
events, humanitarian organizations should concentrate on developing preparedness and
mitigation strategies in vulnerable areas to supplement government work. For example, my final
paper discussed the earthquake and tsunami in Sulawesi. The warning systems failed to alert
citizens adequately and were in disrepair (Singhvi, Saget, & Lee, 2018). If an NGO had
identified these issues before the disaster and worked to educate citizens on actions to take in
response to earthquakes in a coastal region or had donated funds to repair the detection buoys,
many lives could have been saved.
If the world can only address 60% of needs, then maybe capacity isn’t the issue; perhaps it’s the
approach we are using. There is a disproportionate amount of effort directed at the response
phase of a disaster or humanitarian crisis. The mindset leaves little space for the implementation
of effective mitigation and long-term recovery strategies. Once this is recognized and addressed,
I think that that it could reduce the incidence of conflict and improve societal stability following
a disaster. If I go into international response, I will encourage more NGOs to develop branches
that focus on those two aspects, which will, in turn, reduce strain during the response phase.
Howe, K. (2016, January). No End in Sight: A Case Study of Humanitarian Action and the Syria
Conflict [PDF]. Retrieved
Singhvi, A., Saget, B., & Lee, J. C. (2018, October 3). What Went Wrong With Indonesia’s
Tsunami Early Warning System. Retrieved
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). (2019, March 20). Ongoing
humanitarian crises. Retrieved from

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