It has become common practice for people to supplement their diets with pills, smoothies, teas, herbals, and other complementary practices. Select two from the list below and locate an evidence-based article for each. Summarize the intended use, recommended dosage, side effects, and known interactions with over-the-counter and prescription medications. What if contraindications are identified for a patient with liver and/or kidney disease?• Probiotics• Acai• Apple cider vinegar• Garlic• Green tea• Turmeric• Cinnamon• Omega-3 fish oil• DHA• Glucosamine• Melatonin• St. John’s wort• Capsacin• Black cohosh• Aloe vera• Echinacea• Zinc oxide• Saw palmetto• Valerian root• Feverfew• Maca• Niacin• Red yeast rice• DHEA• Kava***Attached you can find an example of how it should be written***You must include SCHOLARLY resources. Remember, blogs, websites ending in .com, wikipedia, etc., are NOT professional resources. Your resources should end in .edu, .gov, .org…etc. If you use your text as a resource, you must also include another scholarly reference.please use this book: Grodner, M., Escott-Stump, S., & Dorner, S. (2020). Nutritional foundations and clinical applications: a nursing approach. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. as part of the references if you have access to it
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Intended use: a natural hormone that regulates sleep (Healthy Library, 2017). At night,
the pineal gland stops producing, serotonin. Instead, melatonin is produced. Once
melatonin is released, the sleep response is triggered (Grodner, 2020). The production
of melatonin varies according to the amount of light that you are exposed to. Our bodies
produce more melatonin in the dark than a dimly lit one (Health Library, 2017).
Recommended dosage: Optimum dose for melatonin is 1-5mg(Health Library,
2017). For insomnia, melatonin is usually taken 30 minutes to 1 hour before bedtime.
However, this does is a broad, as it depends on the person and what other medications
like birth control, smoking, caffeine and health status. Melatonin is available in two
forms: immediate-release and slow release. Quick release melatonin helps falling
asleep and slow-release melatonin helps staying asleep.
Side effects: Headache, short-term depression, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, stomach
cramps and irritability.
Interactions with other medications:
• Sedatives, such as CNS depressants. These two medications alone may cause too
much sleepiness in a person (WebMD, n.d.).
• Birth control. This medication along with birth control may cause too much melatonin
to be in the body (WebMD, n.d.).
• Caffeine. This might decrease melatonin in the body (WebMD, n.d.).
• Antidiabetic drugs. Melatonin might increase the blood sugar in the body (WebMD,
• Immunosuppressants. Melatonin might increase the immune system (WebMD, n.d.).
• Anticoagulant and anti-platelet drugs. Melatonin might slow blood clotting (WebMD,
Contraindications for Melatonin: there is none for patients with liver and kidney
diseases that has been established (Health Library, 2017).
Intended use: Probiotics are live microorganisms that thought to positively alter the gut
microbiome (Marcel, 2018). Probiotics are meant to work with one’s gut to enhance their
health(Grodner, 2020). There is some suggestion that probiotics are also meant to
enhance one’s immune response as well as compete with certain pathogens for
nutrients (Marcel, 2018). Probiotics have been shown to be effective for a variety
causes, especially for patients who suffer from diarrhea, C.diff, Rota-virus diarrhea ,
colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and traveler’s diarrhea (Marcel, 2018).
Recommended dosage: because there are so many different types of probiotics out
there, there is no set dosage (WebMD, n.d.). For the most part, most probiotics are
dosed by the number of live organisms they contain (WebMD, n.d.). An example
includes Lactobacillus acidophilus; this microorganism ranges between 1 billion to 10
billion, which can be split in 3 or 4 doses (WebMD, n.d.).
Side effects: temporary increased gas, constipation thirst and bloating, and headaches
(Julson, 2017). Probiotics may increase infection risk for someone who is
immunocompromised (Julson,2017).
Interactions with other medications: anti-biotics and anti-fungalssuch as Clotrimazole,
Ketoconazole, Griseofulvin and Nystatin (WebMD, n.d.).
Contraindications: No contraindications have been noted for patients with liver or kidney
disease (Marcel, 2018).
Adult Probiotic Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing.
(n.d.). Retrieved from
Grodner, M., Escott-Stump, S., & Dorner, S. (2020). Nutritional foundations and clinical
applications: a nursing approach. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Julson , E. (2017, December 17). Probiotics and Digestive Health: Benefits, Risks, and
More. Retrieved from
Marcel, C. B. (2018). Diarrhea: Use of Probiotics. CINAHL Nursing Guide. Retrieved
Melatonin: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning. (n.d.). Retrieved
Melatonin (Alternative Therapy). (2017). Health Library: Evidence-Based Information.
Ratini, M. (2017, July 18). Probiotics: Supplements for Digestive Health. Retrieved from

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