Just a summary, and explanation base on these powerpoint, in a word document please. around 600-800 words.
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Chapter 1
Introduction to culture
➢ Definitions
of culture
➢ *Elements of culture
➢ *Levels of culture
➢ *Characteristics of culture
➢ * Why we study culture? Imperatives to
study culture

180+ definitions of culture recorded.

Definitions depend on field and research/scholar
and the specific study/angle of the research

What’s your definition?
Definition of culture
Textbook definitions (pp. 4-5) –
Culture is defined from all fields and various angles.
In this class:

* Culture is a group of people who share a set of
norms over time.
➢ In
related fields –

Anthropology: a historically transmitted pattern of meaning
embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed
in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate
and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life.

Psychology: Every person carries within him or herself patterns of
thinking, feeling, and potential acting which were learned throughout

Communication: (borrowed from ethnography) a socially constructed
and historically transmitted pattern of symbols, meanings, premises
and rules. Emphasizes co-creation of meaning.
Hofstede’s elements of culture:

1. symbols – both verbal and nonverbal,
2. rituals – collective activities and behaviors,
3. values – standards of what’s good or bad in a
society, and
4. heroes – myths or stories of figures and
characters who serve as role models in a society.
Components in a culture
➢ people/behavior
– external, visible. . .
e.g. greetings styles, eating, business behavior, etc.
– ideas, beliefs, etc.
e.g. competitiveness, individualism, etc.
➢ concepts/values
➢ Objects
– symbolic representations . . .
e.g. famous landmarks, clothing, etc.
Levels of culture

1. Surface level culture: appearance, behavior,
pop culture, . . .

2. Intermediate level culture: symbols, meanings,
and norms. . .

3. Deep level culture: traditions, beliefs, values. . .
Characteristics of culture

1. People choose to identify with a culture/group.
2. Group members are aware of their identification.
3. Culture includes agreement within the group about its
4. Culture guides individuals’ responses to and
interpretation of the environment.
5. Culture is a pattern of shared dimensions.
6. Culture is shared by group members using signals,
verbal and nonverbal.
7. Culture is transmissible over time.
8. Culture is dynamic, through invention and diffusion
*culture is ethnocentric (e.g., world maps)
Statue of Liberty.
Maps of the world
World map – Asia
World map – America
World map – Australia
World map – Europe
Why study culture?

Group 1 on self-awareness imperative:
How do we learn about ourselves through intercultural communication?
What are the most effective ways of understanding other cultures’ positions and space?
Why and how are people treated differently? By behavior? By achievement? By physical appearance?
Group 2 on demographic imperative:
How does power influence different cultural groups in the US?
Identify racial tensions in the US and in other parts of the world?
“Melting pot” vs. “tossed salad” metaphors, what are the implications?
Group 3 on economic imperative:
How are countries interdependent in the future business world?
How does communication vary across cultures?
How can diverse groups work together?
Group 4 on technological imperative:
How has technology changed our lives and the way we communicate and relate to each other?
How do mediated/electronic comm. differ from face-to-face comm.? Enhanced, reduced, substituted for interpersonal
How do we acquire information about other cultures, specifically, channels, and what kind of information do we get?
Group 5 on peace imperative:
When does intercultural communication result in harmonious relationships among groups?
Can you identify some international conflicts?
What are the communication strategies that we can use in international conflict resolution?
Group 6 on ethical imperative:
Are there certain generic guidelines across cultures for ethical behaviors?
What types of guidelines may transcend across cultures and what may not?
What are ethical guidelines for intercultural interactions?
Introduction Presentation


____ Clear introduction of background
____ Creative opening
____ Clear patterns of organization
____ Ideas well connected
____ Substantial information
____ Well articulated
____ Natural and vivid/kept attention of audience
____ Good control and use of time
____ Good, substantial information included
____ Clearly organized

Grade ____/100
• Do the worksheets in the chapter
• 1. Create a list of external distractions (p. 127)
• 2. Create a list of internal distractions (p. 128)
• Read strategies on p. 129
• 3. Do assignment on pp. 130-131.
• Bring your notes to class for discussion and submission
• 5 R’s of the Cornell note taking system (pp. 146-148):
• 1. Record
• 2. Reduce
• 3. Recite
• 4. Reflect
• 5. Review
Chapter 4
Cross-cultural adaptation

Types of migrants
Theories of cross-cultural adaptation

Uncertain management theory
Intercultural communication competence theory
Communication Accommodation Theory
Face negotiation theory
Cross-cultural adaptation theory
Models of cross-cultural adaptation
 Kim’s Cross-Cultural Adaptation Model
 The U-Curve Model
 The W-Curve Model
 The U.S. Navy Model
 Berry’s Bidimensional Acculturation Model

Cross-cultural adaptation

Intercultural transition




All are synonyms of adaptation . . . All have to do with
coping with culture shocks and beyond.

Culture shock – refers to the “severe discomfort felt by a
newcomer when interacting with people from another
culture, usually in the latter’s territory and over an extended
period of time” (p. 56).

* Culture shock is NOT unique to cross-national situations.
Types of migrants

Studies of cross-cultural adaptation in the U.S. have
focused on the immigrants’ experiences.

By terms of stay:

Long-term migrants – immigrants (or emigrants).

Short-term migrants – sojourners, typically with a
special purpose, e.g., study abroad.
By intention:

Voluntary – for education, work, life change, . . .

Involuntary – forced by external factors, refugees,
political asylums, . . .
Theories of cultural adaptation:
Anxiety/uncertainty management
theory (by Gudykunst) – based on
uncertainty reduction theory
Factors to consider for uncertainty management:
 Positive
 Strong
motivation to interact with strangers
 Positive
social categorization of strangers
 In-group/out-group
 Ethical
being mindful of all these together leads to
reducing uncertainly, and in turn to effective
Intercultural communication
competence (ICCC by Ruben) –
Four attributes of intercultural competence:
1. motivation to interact effectively
2. Knowledge of the other culture
3. Personality traits /attitudes
4. Behavioral skills
Communication Accommodation
Theory (CAT by Giles) –
Mainly in terms of accommodation of the
guest during conversations represented by
two courses of action:
 Convergence
– convergence leads to
integration; and
 Divergence
– which leads to separation.
Face-negotiation theory
(by Ting-Toomey) –
We work to maintain face for ourselves as well as for the
others. When face is threatened, we tend to use various

dominating strategies (opposite submissive strategies)

avoidance strategies

integrating strategies
The English expression “to save face” comes from the Chinese word
for face (面子 miànzi), which describes one’s reputation or dignity
in social contexts. Concepts of honor, prestige, and respect exist in
every culture, but in China, they play an instrumental part of most
social interactions, especially in the business world.
Cross-Cultural Adaptation

Kim’s model:

Enculturation – basic socialization process in
native culture.

Acculturation – process to fit in the host

*Deculturation – losing elements of the home
culture in the process of acculturation.
Kim’s adaptation model
Models of cross-cultural adaptation

“U-curve” model – three points/stages:

1. Honeymoon/excitement stage

2. culture shock stage

3. adjustment stage
“W-curve” model – considering reentry

1. Honeymoon stage (excitement)

2. Hostility stage (culture shock)

3. Humorous stage (adjusting, playing with the new culture)

4. in-sync stage (adjusted)

5. Ambivalence stage (unsure feeling after reentry)

6. Reentry culture shock stage (similar to first one)

7. Resocialization stage (re-adjusted)
Berry’s Bidimensional model
of immigrant acculturation
The U.S. Navy model
anticipation stage
is wonderful stage
is awful stage
is OK stage
* More factors that influence
these stages:
 age,
gender, upbringing, self-esteem,
cultural differences, education, finance,
personality, preparation, expectation,
technology, term of stay, . . .
Levels of factors in cultural adaptation:

System level – institutions, history, etc. (e.g, ISC, SDSU offices,
political atmosphere, . . .)

Individual level – personal knowledge, education, expectation,
age, gender, etc. (e.g., level of English, knowledge of the U.S.
culture, . . .)

Interpersonal level – interaction with host culture and
individuals, opportunities to socialize/connect with locals, etc.
(e.g., live with American roommates, friends, meetings . . .)

Media-level – learning of information in the media, education
programs, etc. (e.g., media consumption, following news,
presidential campaigns. . . )
Chapter 2 Introduction to Communication

Defining communication
Models of communication process
Goals of communication
*Types of signs in communication
Defining intercultural communication (ICC)
Communication studies approaches
Definition of Communication
• Communication involves a speaker, the
speech act, and audience, and a purpose
• * Communication is the act of creating
common meanings between
Based in a mathematical model of communication

P. 10
• Comm. Context
• Icc expectation
• Icc perception
– Channel
• Sender
• Encoding
• Frame of
• Response
-> symbolic exchange process
• Meaning negotiation
• Comm. context
Frame of
Goals of communication

1. to inform
2. teach
3. to persuade
4. to please and satisfy needs
– (to maximize pleasure and minimize pain)
Types of signs in
• 1. verbal signs
• 2. nonverbal signs
• 3. visual signs
– Visual signs related to mass/mediated
Definition of Intercultural
Communication (ICC)
• Intercultural communication is the
exchange of information between at least
two participants from different cultures to
attain goals in a mutually satisfying
relationship (p. 25).
Some areas of
Intercultural Communication Studies
• Intercultural communication –
– Generally face-to-face interactions among people of
diverse culture.
• Cross-cultural communication –
– Cross comparisons of cultural phenomena.
• International communication –
– mediated communication, cross national boundaries,
often political contexts.
• Global communication –
– transborder transfer of information, among
governments, often worldwide issues.

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