must provide a clear summary of the topic, including a brief description of what psychologists and researchers have learned relevant to the topic. NOTE: the real-world topic and psychological concept you choose must relate directly to the course. must have at least two references. Discuss how it relates to a real-world topic of your choosing. you must write about something in the news or something you or a friend have experienced that directly relates to something in class. You must describe how it relates. Give many clear examples illustrating the
connection. The paper should be three FULL pages with one inch margins and double spaced sized 12 point Arial font. you should include a references page at
the end of your paper. must explain the concept, the event, and describe links between the concept and the event. MUST CITE PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES. DO NOT CITE THE TEXTBOOK OR WEBPAGES.
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9.1 Motivation
Figure 1: Emotions can change in an
instant, especially in response to an
unexpected event. Surprise, fear, anger, and
sadness are some immediate emotions that
people experienced in the a ermath of the
April 15, 2013 Boston Marathon bombing.
What are emotions? What causes them?
What motivated some bystanders to
immediately help others while other people
ran for safety? (credit: modi cation of
work by Aaron “tango” Tang)
What makes us behave as we do? What drives us
to eat? What drives us toward sex? Is there a
biological basis to explain the feelings we
experience? How universal are emotions?
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In this chapter, we will explore issues relating to
both motivation and emotion. We will begin with
a discussion of several theories that have been
proposed to explain motivation and why we
engage in a given behavior. You will learn about
the physiological needs that drive some human
behaviors, as well as the importance of our social
experiences in in uencing our actions.
Next, we will consider both eating and having sex
as examples of motivated behaviors. What are the
physiological mechanisms of hunger and satiety?
What understanding do scientists have of why
obesity occurs, and what treatments exist for
obesity and eating disorders? How has research
into human sex and sexuality evolved over the
past century? How do psychologists understand
and study the human experience of sexual
orientation and gender identity? These questions
—and more—will be explored.
This chapter will close with a discussion of
emotion. You will learn about several theories
that have been proposed to explain how emotion
occurs, the biological underpinnings of emotion,
and the universality of emotions.
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9.1 Motivation
Flash Forward
Ready to dig into the vocabulary?
Get some practice with this Hawkes
Verified Quizlet set!
Why do we do the things we do? What
motivations underlie our behaviors? Motivation
describes the wants or needs that direct behavior
toward a goal. In addition to biological motives,
motivations can be intrinsic (arising from internal
factors) or extrinsic (arising from external
factors) (Figure 2). Intrinsically motivated
behaviors are performed because of the sense of
personal satisfaction that they bring, whereas
extrinsically motivated behaviors are performed
in order to receive something from others.
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Figure 2: Intrinsic motivation comes
from within the individual, while
extrinsic motivation comes from
outside the individual.
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9.1 Motivation
In reality, our motivations are often a mix of both
intrinsic and extrinsic factors, but the nature of
the mix of these factors might change over time
(often in ways that seem counter-intuitive). There
is an old adage that says, “Choose a job that you
love, and you will never have to work a day in
your life,” meaning that if you enjoy your
occupation, work doesn’t seem like…well, work.
Some research suggests that this isn’t necessarily
the case (Daniel & Esser, 1980; Deci, 1972; Deci,
Koestner, & Ryan, 1999). According to this
research, receiving some sort of extrinsic
reinforcement (i.e., getting paid) for engaging in
behaviors that we enjoy leads to those behaviors
no longer providing that same enjoyment. As a
result, we might spend less time engaging in these
reclassi ed behaviors in the absence of any
extrinsic reinforcement.
Consider these examples:
Odessa loves baking, so she
bakes for fun in her free time.
However, once she starts
working in the bakery
department, she no longer has
the desire to bake when she is
not working (Figure 3).
Nicole enjoys designing video
games, but once she is employed
with a local video game company,
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she no longer looks forward to
the task as she once did.
Michael loves children, so he
thinks that the best job would be
to work with them frequently.
Instead, he nds that the
constant exposure to children
makes him rethink his own future
as a parent.
What Odessa and the others have experienced is
called the overjusti cation effect—intrinsic
motivation is diminished when extrinsic
motivation is given. This can lead to extinguishing
the intrinsic motivation and creating a
dependence on extrinsic rewards for continued
performance (Deci et al., 1999).
Figure 3: Research suggests that when
something we love to do, like icing
cakes, becomes our job, our intrinsic
and extrinsic motivations to do it
may change. (credit: Agustín Ruiz)
Other studies suggest that intrinsic motivation
may not be so vulnerable to the effects of
extrinsic reinforcements, and in fact,
reinforcements such as verbal praise might
actually increase intrinsic motivation (Arnold,
1976; Cameron & Pierce, 1994). In that case,
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Odessa’s motivation to bake in her free time
might remain high if, for example, customers
regularly compliment her baking or cake
decorating skills.
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9.1 Motivation
These apparent discrepancies in the researchers’
ndings may be understood by considering
several factors. For one, physical reinforcement
(such as money) and verbal reinforcement (such
as praise) may affect an individual in very
different ways. In fact, tangible rewards (i.e.,
money) tend to have more negative effects on
intrinsic motivation than do intangible rewards
(i.e., praise).
Figure 4: Instrinsic motivation can be
a ected both negatively and positively
depending on the type of reward.
Furthermore, the expectation of the extrinsic
motivator by an individual is crucial: if the person
expects to receive an extrinsic reward, then
intrinsic motivation for the task tends to be
reduced. If, however, there is no such expectation,
and the extrinsic motivation is presented as a
surprise, then intrinsic motivation for the task
tends to persist (Deci et al., 1999).
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9.1 Motivation
In educational settings, students are more likely
to experience intrinsic motivation to learn when
they feel a sense of belonging and respect in the
classroom. This internalization can be enhanced if
the evaluative aspects of the classroom are deemphasized and if students feel that they exercise
some control over the learning environment.
Furthermore, providing students with activities
that are challenging, yet doable, along with a
rationale for engaging in various learning
activities can enhance intrinsic motivation for
those tasks (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009).
Figure 5: There are di erent strategies that
are e ective for increasing instrinsic
motivation in class.
Consider Hakim, a rst-year law student with two
courses this semester: Family Law and Criminal
Law. The Family Law professor has a rather
intimidating classroom; he likes to put students
on the spot with tough questions, which often
leaves students feeling belittled or embarrassed.
Grades are based exclusively on quizzes and
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exams, and the instructor posts results of each
test on the classroom door. In contrast, the
Criminal Law professor facilitates classroom
discussions and respectful debates in small
groups. The majority of the course grade is not
exam-based but centers on a student-designed
research project on a crime issue of the student’s
choice. Research suggests that Hakim will be less
intrinsically motivated in his Family Law course,
where students are intimidated in the classroom
setting, and there is an emphasis on teacherdriven evaluations. Alternatively, Hakim is likely
to experience a higher level of intrinsic
motivation in his Criminal Law course, where the
class setting encourages inclusive collaboration
and a respect for ideas and where students have
more in uence over their learning activities.
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9.1 Motivation
Theories about
William James (1842–1910) was an important
contributor to early research into motivation, and
he is often referred to as the father of psychology
in the United States. James theorized that
behavior was driven by a number of instincts,
which aid survival (Figure 6). From a biological
perspective, an instinct is a species-speci c
pattern of behavior that is not learned. There
was, however, considerable controversy among
James and his contemporaries over the exact
de nition of instinct. James proposed several
dozen special human instincts, but many of his
contemporaries had their own lists that differed.
A mother’s protection of her baby, the urge to lick
sugar, and hunting prey were among the human
behaviors proposed as true instincts during
James’s era. This view—that human behavior is
driven by instincts—received a fair amount of
criticism because of the undeniable role of
learning in shaping all sorts of human behavior. In
fact, as early as the 1900s, some instinctive
behaviors were experimentally demonstrated to
result from associative learning (recall when you
learned about Watson’s conditioning of fear
response with “Little Albert”) (Faris, 1921).
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Figure 6: (a) William James proposed the
instinct theory of motivation, asserting
that behavior is driven by instincts. (b) In
humans, instincts may include behaviors
such as an infant’s rooting for a nipple and
sucking. (credit b: modi cation of work by
“Mothering Touch”/Flickr)
Do humans have instincts that
do not differ across
individuals? Identify at least
Re ection Questions
Another early theory of motivation proposed that
the maintenance of homeostasis is particularly
important in directing behavior. You may recall
from your earlier reading that homeostasis is the
tendency to maintain a balance, or optimal level,
within a biological system. In a body system, a
control center (which is often part of the brain)
receives input from receptors (which are often
complexes of neurons). The control center directs
effectors (which may be other neurons) to correct
any imbalance detected by the control center.
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9.1 Motivation
According to the drive theory of motivation,
deviations from homeostasis create physiological
needs. These needs result in psychological drive
states that direct behavior to meet the need and,
ultimately, bring the system back to homeostasis.
When it comes to ingestive behavior, you
experience the following when you go without
food for a period of time:
Figure 7: Going without food causes a
speci c physiological response that
encourages you to eat.
Eating will eliminate the hunger, and your blood
sugar levels will return to normal (Figure 8).
Interestingly, drive theory also emphasizes the
role that habits play in the type of behavioral
response in which we engage. A habit is a pattern
of behavior in which we regularly engage. Once
we have engaged in a behavior that successfully
reduces a drive, we are more likely to engage in
that behavior whenever faced with that drive in
the future (Graham & Weiner, 1996).
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Figure 8: Hunger and subsequent eating are
the result of complex physiological
processes that maintain homeostasis.
(credit “le “: modi cation of work by
“Gracie and Viv”/Flickr; credit “center”:
modi cation of work by Steven Depolo;
credit “right”: modi cation of work by
Monica Renata)
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9.1 Motivation
Extensions of drive theory take into account
levels of arousal as potential motivators. As you
recall from your study of learning, these theories
assert that there is an optimal level of arousal
that we all try to maintain (Figure 9). If we are
underaroused, we become bored and will seek
out some sort of stimulation. On the other hand,
if we are overaroused, we will engage in
behaviors to reduce our arousal (Berlyne, 1960).
Most students have experienced this need to
maintain optimal levels of arousal over the course
of their academic career. Think about how much
stress students experience toward the end of
spring semester. They feel overwhelmed with
seemingly endless exams, papers, and major
assignments that must be completed on time.
They probably yearn for the rest and relaxation
that awaits them over the extended summer
break. However, once they nish the semester, it
doesn’t take too long before they begin to feel
bored. Generally, by the time the next semester is
beginning in the fall, many students are quite
happy to return to school. This is an example of
how arousal theory works.
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Figure 9: The concept of optimal arousal in
relation to performance on a task is
depicted here. Performance is maximized at
the optimal level of arousal, and it tapers
o during under- and overarousal.
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9.1 Motivation
So what is the optimal level of arousal? What
level leads to the best performance? Research
shows that moderate arousal is generally best;
when arousal is very high or very low,
performance tends to suffer (Yerkes & Dodson,
In a small group, discuss your
arousal level with regard to
taking an exam for this class.
How does your arousal
correlate with your
Group Activity
Optimal arousal level is more complex than a
simple answer that the middle level is always
best. Researchers Robert Yerkes (pronounced
“Yerk-EES”) and John Dodson discovered that the
optimal arousal level depends on the complexity
and dif culty of the task to be performed (Figure
10). This relationship is known as Yerkes-Dodson
law, which holds that a simple task is performed
best when arousal levels are relatively high and
complex tasks are best performed when arousal
levels are lower.
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Figure 10: Task performance is best when
arousal levels are in a middle range, with
di cult tasks best performed under lower
levels of arousal and simple tasks best
performed under higher levels of arousal.
Hawkes Learning
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9.1 Motivation
Self-E cacy and Social
Self-ef cacy is an individual’s belief in her own
capability to complete a task, which may include a
previous successful completion of the exact task
or a similar task. Albert Bandura (1994) theorized
that an individual’s sense of self-ef cacy plays a
pivotal role in motivating behavior. Bandura
argues that motivation derives from expectations
that we have about the consequences of our
behaviors, and it is the appreciation of our
capacity to engage in a given behavior that will
determine what we do and the future goals that
we set for ourselves. For example, if you have a
sincere belief in your ability to achieve at the
highest level, you are more likely to take on
challenging tasks and to not let setbacks dissuade
you from seeing the task through to the end.
Think back to a recent
challenge you faced. Did you
approach the problem with
high or low self-ef cacy?
Re ection Questions
A number of theorists have focused their
research on understanding social motives
(McAdams & Constantian, 1983; McClelland &
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Liberman, 1949; Murray et al., 1938). Among the
motives they describe are needs for achievement,
af liation, and intimacy.
Figure 11: We are driven socially by a need
for achievement, a liation, and intimacy.
Henry Murray et al. (1938) categorized these
needs into domains. For example, the need for
achievement and recognition falls under the
domain of ambition. Dominance and aggression
were recognized as needs under the domain of
human power, and play was a recognized need in
the domain of interpersonal affection.
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9.1 Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of
While the theories of motivation described
earlier relate to basic biological drives, individual
characteristics, or social contexts, Abraham
Maslow (1943) proposed a hierarchy of needs
that spans the spectrum of motives ranging from
the biological to the individual to the social. These
needs are often depicted as a pyramid (Figure 12).
Figure 12: Maslow’s hierarchy of
needs is illustrated here. In some
versions of the pyramid, cognitive and
aesthetic needs are also included
between esteem and selfactualization. Others include another
tier at the top of the pyramid for selftranscendence.
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At the base of the pyramid are all of the
physiological needs that are necessary for
survival. These are followed by basic needs for
security and safety, the need to be loved and to
have a sense of belonging, and the need to have
self-worth and con dence. The top tier of the
pyramid is self-actualization, which is a need that
essentially equates to achieving one’s full
potential, and it can only be realized when needs
lower on the pyramid have been met. To Maslow
and humanistic theorists, self-actualization
re ects the humanistic emphasis on positive
aspects of human nature. Maslow suggested that
this is an ongoing, life-long process and that only
a small percentage of people actually achieve a
self-actualized state (Francis & Kritsonis, 2006;
Maslow, 1943).
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9.1 Motivation
According to Maslow (1943), one must satisfy
lower-level needs before addressing those needs
that occur higher in the pyramid.
Consider the following examples:
Shaterra is struggling to nd
enough food to meet her
nutritional requirements, so
would she be worried about her
level of popularity in school?
Jarred lives in a bad
neighborhood where he is
constantly fearful of his home
being broken into. In this case, do
you think he would be overly
concerned with how he performs
in school?
It should be pointed out that Maslow’s theory has
been criticized for its subjective nature and its
inability to account for phenomena that occur in
the real world (Leonard, 1982). Other research
has more recently addressed that late in life,
Maslow proposed a self-transcendence level
above self-actualization—to represent striving for
meaning and purpose beyond the concerns of
oneself (Koltko-Rivera, 2006). For example,
people sometimes make self-sacri ces in order to
make a political statement or in an attempt to
improve the conditions of others. Mohandas K.
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Gandhi, a world-renowned advocate for
independence through nonviolent p …
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